Published as chapter 4 of
G. David Garson (ed), Handbook of Public Information Systems
(NY: Marcel Dekker, 2000).
Draft as submitted by Jeremy
R. T. Lewis
Huntingdon College, Montgomery Alabama
| Text of article I Table of Contents | Table of Executive Orders | Bibliography |
|Table 1: Presidential Executive Orders on National Security Classification|
|Provisions: EO No.:||10,290||10,501||10,964||11,652||12,065||12,356||12,958|
|Declassification date or event on document at time of classification||No
|Portion marking of paragraphs in a document||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Balancing test of public's right to know versus need to protect||No||No||No||No||Yes||No||No|
|Appeals or oversight structure||No||Yes||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Scheduled automatic declassification review||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||Yes|
|Formal mandatory review||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
Source: Adapted from Moynihan Report 1997, pp.54-56. Data added from Zobrist (1973) and from US House and US Senate Hearings on Executive Privilege, Secrecy in Government, Freedom of Information. Volume III: Appendix (1973) pp. 579-620.
* The option of "Originating Agency's Determination Required" became a nearly universal stamp, replacing the date of automatic declassification. By 1992, 95% of new classified documents had this marking, according to GAO Report GAO/NSIAD-93-127 (1993).