Speakers and members of AWAC

Notes of guest speaker events at AWAC

by Jeremy Lewis, PhD

Speeches, 2017-18

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Images from 2017-18 events are found here in high resolution; and on AWAC's Facebook page.

See Alabama World Affairs Council at Alwac.org


Tuesday, September 12, 2017. Dr. Mark Conversino for Amb. Jack Matlock PhD, “Russia, Then and Now”

Tuesday, October 17, 2017. Professor Loch Johnson, "American Foreign Policy in a World Both Uncertain and Dangerous"

, November 16, 2017. Professor Jorge Dominquez, “Cuba: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow”

Tuesday 23 January 2018: Ambassador Jack Matlock, PhD, “Russia, Then and Now”

Tuesday, February 13, 2018. Professor Gabriel Aguilera, Air War College, “Venezuela”

Wednesday, April 11, 2018. General Michael Hayden, USAF (ret), “Global Security”

Tuesday, May 8, 2018. Air War College Professors, Regional Reports

Special Programs


All programs are from 5:30 - 7:30 pm, Gold Room, 2nd Floor, Whitley Hall, Troy University Montgomery, 231 Montgomery St. Montgomery, AL

Tuesday, September 12, 2017: Dr. Mark Conversino, “Russia, Then and Now”

Dr. Mark J. Conversino is Deputy Commandant and Professor of Strategy and Security Studies at the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies (SAASS), Air University (AU), Maxwell Air Force Base (AFB), Alabama. As Professor, he is responsible for creating warrior-scholars of airpower. Dr. Conversino joined the faculty of the Air War College (AWC) as a civilian following his retirement from the Air Force and subsequently joined the faculty of SAASS in 2015. He specializes in military and airpower history and theory, Russian history and the politics of the former Soviet Union. His book is Fighting With the Soviets: The Failure of Operation FRANTIC, 1944 -1945, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Mark Conversino portrait

We rescheduled to 23 Jan. 2018  Jack Matlock, Ambassador in Residence at Troy University, former Ambassador to Czechoslovakia and the USSR, and former Director for European and Soviet Affairs on the National Security Council.

Mark Conversino, "Russia Then and Now." PhD in political history, has book on Operation Frantic.
Last there in 2014, fewer invitations now from Russian government for US military, and during Ukraine crisis Conversino had to leave for Estonia. Questioned at border. Russian thinking in big picture.
Allies in Finland and Baltics are worried by military and propaganda.
Zarpad 2017 exercises large and have unsettled the Baltic allies.
Russians are both post-colonial and post-imperial, post 1991.
As always, post-colonial people have to redefine themselves – and current regime has a blood-based nationality of Russky. Cannot become Russky.
Empire is gone, and state boundaries are now national boundaries. After 300-400 years of empire building, expanding 50 sq miles daily for 300 years – gone suddenly from August to December in fall of Empire.
Unfair verdict of history, in view of current leaders.
US loses sight of non-transactional relationship over Syria and other issues.
Obama called them a middling regional power -- but they do not see it that way.
They see the world completely differently.
25 M ethnic Russians were left out in the new states, many in NATO allies today. Putin, tens of millions of our co-citizens and co-patriots were in other countries.
Our values are alien and policy of Putin government is to defend Russians no matter where they live.
Hybrid war with little green men is a concept of war begun by ethnic Russians and merely supported by their government.
Ukraine suffered millions of losses in 1930s and WW2.
Russians often say they did not lose the cold war – USSR lost but Russia was only created in 1991. Common to say, ‘No NATO troops were in Red Square but you treated us like you won.’
Regime now wants to dial back the clock.
Russians get teary eyed about Ukraine, the brother Slavic state, looking west to Europe. They do not feel that about Turkmenistan, but Ukraine is special. Putin concerned that another collapse might happen if Ukraine did not crack down.
They chose hybrid war or grey zone war, appearing not to be a war, use deception and divide western allies. Told Ukrainians the fascist Nazi thugs from Kiev would come to get you; marines seized Crimea without uniforms, executed well. Putin told other world leaders they were not his guys.
[Russian Media, Propaganda, and Public Opinion]
Russians get their news mostly from government-controlled news channels (except Moscow Times). Slick sources, unlike cold war propaganda, fed into US channels. There is no check and balance system in Russia, so media are concerned to get the story out there first, and not bother with retractions. Even WaPo and NYT until recently had Russia feed.
RT has graduates of US journalism schools, real accents – stories with kernel of truth surrounded by fake news. Editor in chief of RT was a US editor. RT YouTube channel has top hit rate and in UK was rated by consumers above BBC! Using American journalists is more persuasive. Massive subsidy [$400 M?] from Russian government.
Sputnik is ugly little brother – also heavily subsidized by govt.
Bloggers working with multiple accounts, tweeting multiple times a day. Swarm journalists and comment sites, paid as Russian trolls. Recent Defense awards for Russian media, info to prepare battlefield is their doctrine.
Blocking broadcasts in West would be a violation of US First amendment and of EU rules. Russian media planted story of Syrians raping a girl in Germany, and Germany had protests from neo Nazis before they could react. Difficulty is to educate population to be less vulnerable to foreign propaganda.
Emails 2016 used ‘So whatism?’ Drew parallels with Democrats interference in own elections. (E.g., Thugs killed 4 M in Ukraine under Stalin – so what about lunch counter segregation revealed in US media?)
[Countermeasures ineffective?]
Baltic states now have US tripwire force, like Korean border and Fulda Gap in cold war. Planes are immediately tracked by advanced SAMs. Estonia and Latvia have large ethnic Russians, getting most news from Russia and viewing NATO as the danger, not Russia. Now NATO is wargaming a major war with Russia in Eastern Europe, and losing. Estonians hope we will honor treaty and defend them. Russia can change facts on ground while we are extremely confused.
Question Time
Korean missiles parts could have come from either Russia or Ukraine, similar parts. Russia trying to keep NK in play.
Why not just ignore NK? Chinese seem to have assured NK would only defend them if not the aggressor. Conventional deterrence is uncertain in these circumstances.
Russian economy? Close to a petro state, Russian budget has fallen by half, has affected a military rearmament plan which has greatly upgraded equipment till now. Putin has revamped the tax code of a flatter 13% (not that all pay it) and before crisis built up cash reserves before Ukrainian war and sanctions. Min Finance says may run out of reserves by new election 2018. Putin created first ever Russian middle class, wealth spreading … so mass demonstrations against corruption shook them. Message is ‘Don’t look at your frig, look at your TV, and support the government.’ GDP now may be half of Germany and about Mexico’s – prior to that, Russians had in real terms, the 7th largest GDP.
Mafia now has gone if it opposed regime, but if they cooperate, they flourish. Will not tolerate wild west bombings and assassinations of Yeltsin era.
Likelihood of Ukraine joining NATO? Not good though do already have visa free travel with EU. War in Donbas has made NATO membership unlikely.
Lithuania has fewer ethnic Russians but Stalin removed or slaughtered local ethnicities. Unlike Ukraine, Estonia and Latvia did not simply give citizenship to those living inside.
Perhaps 100K Russians are stateless. In Central Asia, high ranking officers all spoke Russian and officials often have Russian names.
Government gives $10K per new child, sponsors Conception Day, and benefits. Growth in immigration of Asians (satellite states) but Russians have fire hydrant shaped demographics, population has declined badly and expected to continue – a problem for holding territory in Asia in future.
Putin after Crimea made promiscuous statements about nuclear weapons (doctrine of being prepared to go nuclear, to obtain other gains – but they know they have to be careful not to overplay hand).
Sowalki gap? Small land corridor between Belarus, Poland and Kaliningrad. If Russian units drive across that gap, sovereign Russian territory with massive forces on land and air, cutting off Baltics. We have only 7 fighters plus some from Belgians, while Russians have 400 planes close enough. When our planes take off, they are immediately locked onto by advanced S400 SAMS.
More Russian troops in Kaliningrad than in all of Baltic states combined. Baltics have been warning us for years they needed to be in NATO. Russians could take the territory before US could react.

Tuesday, October 17, 2017: Professor Loch Johnson, "American Foreign Policy in a World Both Uncertain and Dangerous"
Dr. Loch Johnson, Regents Professor, University of Georgia, is a distinguished academic, the author of 30 books and over 200 articles on US Foreign Policy and Intelligence. A former Congressional staffer, he has been a visiting scholar at Yale and Oxford. See program announcement and biography [PDF].

Loch Johnson as teacher

Loch Kingsford Johnson is the former Secretary of the APSA, President of the ISA, and a staff member of the US Senate Committees on Intelligence, and Foreign Relations.

How can America relate to the rest of the world?
In the words of the Murphy Commission: must deal with the world that we find.
Embrace 4 institutional changes and 5 maxims.
Threat assessment exercise every January, among principals in cabinet room. Prioritize threats. Classified but can easily guess terrorist groups will be on list. Director Clapper argues greatest danger is cyberwarfare, and now several investigations.
NK also in tier 1A threats, which drives resources used. Taliban also 1A and 16th year makes this the longest war ever for US. Breakout of other nations, NK, Iran a concern. Russia and China obviously have nuclear power so in 1A. Tier 1B includes ballistic missile race, plus chemical and biological weapons.
Tiers 2-4 include Venezuela, human rights, refugees.
VP Al Gore used to argue in these meetings for environmental threats but these often are not accorded the weighting they should.
Admonitions from fear-mongers, leading to threat inflation. Russell Brands argues Russian and Chinese expansionism needs great attention; Elliot argues we are unready to fight.
Curtis LeMay called for immediate strikes on Cuba in 1962 but JFK was wiley enough to wait for information. Later we learned Russians had local missiles ready while the nuclear missiles would not be ready for 2 weeks.
In Vietnam the domino theory won out over the counsels that Ho Chi Minh -- whose hero was George Washington -- might be able to stand up to Chinese communism.
Brits spend on defense only $3.1 Bn, a fraction of what we spend.
Basic defects in the way we conduct foreign policy.

Weak intelligence apparatus.
Gap between decision makers and information. Too many self-licking ice creams, read only by author. More ‘forward observers’ needed in policy departments such as Treasury and Commerce. EPA international division needed to work with CIA environmental center, and now does when not too busy. Needs closer communication. Flood of fire hose information incoming. Must become more sophisticated to filter signals from noise.
CIA now working with ‘silicon valley’ (software executives) to improve information filtering. Integration of 16 agencies is needed, (his HS classmate) Clapper, very concerned with how to get out of $80 Bn budget, despite stove piping. President needs holistic view from HUMINT and Satellites and other methods. We created the ODNI -- but without budget and personnel authority -- so directors are merely gorillas in stovepipes.
Emphasized military approach over diplomatic.
Sometimes (Hitler, 9/11) military is essential but how much is enough?
In cold war spent $525 B/yr on defense, now $600 in real terms. Military to state spending is 19:1. Present administration plans to increase military budget while cutting peacekeeping and food aid. 20/22 positions at State remain unfilled and 1/3 ambassadors not named. Some are questionable such as Gingrich’s wife as ambassador to Vatican.
Increases often justified by adversaries. But China has only one carrier, zero cruisers, 19 destroyers, 260 nukes. Albright philosophy that we have such a good military we should use it – but that is strange. Better to blow up a few things but do more talking softly. Sec. Tillerson does not even bother his counterparts around world.
Odd to give Nobel prize to group recently that opposes nuclear weapons (safer with them in cold war) – but still, how much is enough?
Administration is staffed with generals, balance is toward Pentagon, even though President and Secretary of State are inexperienced in foreign policy. Tillerson wanted Elliot Abrams (from Iran-contra) a poor choice -- but he was excluded anyway because he had criticized Trump in campaign. Tillerson has yet to give a single foreign policy speech.
After 16 years in Afghanistan -- the graveyard of Alexander the Great, Russian and English Empires –we are planning increase in troops.
On the verge of a global conflict between Shia and Sunni Muslims – we should not get in the middle, as may be happening.
Too infatuated with CIA covert action
– killing machine rather than intel gathering machine.
Ike’s military-industrial complex is now joined by intelligence-industrial complex.
Should we rely on CIA for aggressive activities? Many errors in 1950s. Mike Spann (of Alabama) was the first casualty of a good unconventional war.
Drones are still inaccurate and causing collateral damage. Still lack of coordination between CIA and USAF drones, and 2 attorneys in DOJ still call the targets. Perhaps we need a court like FISA to oversee them.
Too infatuated with executive power.
Moving towards an imperial presidency, contrary to the Founders’ thrust in forming government. Drone strikes in Yemen were not authorized by the Authorization of the Use of Force in Afghanistan. What is their legality?
Legislative leaders need to step up and take responsibility.
US needs to listen better to other nations, not simply call them to tell them what the US is going to do.
Foreign aid: contribution is 0.06% of US GDP on foreign civil aid, well below 0.7% standard. Chinese have built railway and harbor in Pakistan for example.
Set good example for world (Fulbright principle) and we are widely admired for free press and open elections – if not for opiates and mass murders.
Cost of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (2.5 T in Afghan alone) – better spent on domestic infrastructure.
Build better consensus before action.
Should have listened to German and French allies and taken time to build information on Iraq. Should have waited on Viet Nam [in 1950s] to find out how VN was going to develop.
America already great again. But can do better with governing.

Question Time
Kurds? Need leadership to regard Kurds for assisting us and they have a claim to a nation, but resisted by Turks and others.

North Korea – did patience fail there, as with Munich 1938? NK different, should have opposed Hitler earlier but NK war would go nuclear almost immediately. Might try basketball diplomacy and rely on deterrence and Kim’s rationality.

Iran? Many Iranians, below the mullahs, are western friendly, so possible to deal with them. True that they can develop nukes on military bases that are exempt from inspections – but we have saturation intel coverage HUMINT, SIGINT and satellites, and did covert cyber action with Israelis. Iranians may eventually overthrow the mullahs to escape from medieval life. Iran is twice the size of Iraq. Better to engage them with rest of world.

Basis for negotiation is military power – or diplomacy? Trouble with negotiation from strength is the security dilemma problem – negotiation from parity is easier. But cannot remove state department – need to balance military with diplomacy. Reagan realized that his military buildup was going to bankrupt both US and USSR.

Nuclear triad to be reduced? Bomber leg can be removed and land based missiles too vulnerable, should rely on naval missiles, which although imperfect in communications have accurate power. Can dampen down rhetoric of foreign policy and talk down NK with Chinese – worth trying.

Chinese and Cubans have sent engineers and doctors and nurses abroad, and US should do such services to balance against military power.

Threats coming from NGOs now rather than states? Yes, and many young males are attracted by belonging rather than ideology. But we need joint ventures in factories for Pakistan, and create jobs for youth. States are still the atom of politics – but many drawn to terrorist groups by frustrations with jobs and women.

Not America First but a community of civilized nations. Porter Goss said that since WMD had been wrong, he would not trust working with foreign countries – but that lasted only about 3 days, because soon had to work with multiple countries.

THURSDAY, November 16, 2017: Professor Jorge Dominquez,  “Cuba: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow”
Professor Dominquez is a distinguished Harvard Professor, Chair of the Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies and former Vice Provost for International Affairs. The author of numerous books and articles on Latin American Politics, he is a specialist on Cuba.

Jorge Dominguez portrait

An internationally known expert on Latin American politics, Dominquez is the Antonio Madero Professor for the Study of Mexico and chair of the Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies at Harvard university. A noted scholar, he is the author or editor of various books, among them Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America; Debating U.S.-Cuban Relations: How Should We Now Play Ball?, 2nd ed.; Contemporary U.S.-Latin American Relations: Cooperation or Conflict in the 21st Century?, 2nd ed.; Mexico’s Evolving Democracy: A Comparative Study of the 2012 Elections; Routledge Handbook of Latin America in the World; Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America,4th ed.; Cuban Economic and Social Development: Policy Reforms and Challenges in the 21st Century; The United States and Mexico: Between Partnership and Conflict, 2nd ed.; Technopols: Freeing Politics and Markets in Latin America in the 1990s, and many other books and articles on domestic and international politics in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Professor Dominquez served as Harvard University’s vice provost for international affairs (2006-2015) and as director of Harvard’s Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (1995-2006). A past president of the Latin American Studies Association and a past board chair of the Latin American Scholarship Program of American Universities, he currently serves on the editorial boards of Political Science Quarterly, Foreign Affairs Latinoamérica, Cuban Studies, Foro internacional, and Journal of Cold War Studies. He was series editor for the Peabody Award-winning Public Broadcasting System television series Crisis in Central America. He is a founding member of the Inter-American Dialogue and Adviser to the Club de Madrid. His current research focuses on the international relations and domestic politics of Latin American countries.

Prepared remarks
Internal events in Cuba
Demography below population replacement rate since 1978, fewer kids born, 11.2 M population now and already declining even without emigration. Life expectancy similar to USA and W Europe, with similar causes of death (cancers and heart disease).
Why has Cuba’s government lasted so long? Educate girls and they will take charge of their lives, 85% graduate HS, reduces fertility rate. Consequences are closing primary schools and opening assisted living for elderly. Less work for pediatrics and more for geriatrics. Cuba has excellent demographers but Fidel refused to pay attention.
Median age is 45, 1 in 5 over 60, unprepared to care for elderly.
Unfunded pension liability is colossal. Public opinion poll of public transport and of public services – only 1/6 approved, state was doing badly, except education and health care. Believed that grandparents and kids were well served.
PISA test showed Cubans up with East Asians, a full standard deviation ahead of Latin America – though less so now. Under Raoul for ten years [9 since 2008], number of university students has dropped 70%, for lack of budget. Ordinary people lack faith in future because of poor economic performance.
Officially there is no poverty, but U of Havana colleagues developed “population at risk” [poverty] category with four criteria
1/5 Cubans are found at risk.
Economic growth
Cuba does not compute GDP by global standard method – they use own method which is unpublished. Even by official standard, growth has been zero to 2%, except one year at 4% and 2016 actually fell. Reason is end of Soviet support for Cuba, subsidizing sugar economy. Sugar economy went bankrupt and only produces 1/5M tons/year and ¾ mills have been shuttered or are museums. Cuba does not feed itself, imports significant quantities, in part from US (thanks to Bush exception to embargo).
Cuban manufacturing is a tribute to 1950s tech, supply of goods is extremely limited. Very slowly adopted measures for service sector as core of economy, despite hindrance of government running it.
Economic Reforms
1. Export of professional services to Venzuela and others, but under Chavez Venezuela ‘s barter of petroleum for doctors, bodyguards and other professionals. Service exports well exceed value of the petroleum. However, with decline of markets Cuba has lost some of income. Median physician expatriate pays effective tax rate of 94%, so doctor earns very little. Most Cuban doctors are women, and they will soon learn they could earn vastly more abroad, hence their emigration rate.
2. Welcome international tourists to Cuba, a good move economically, and that part of Cuban deal will likely continue under Trump administration. In response to sonic attacks on two dozen diplomatic personnel, US withdrew all but one diplomat and required Cuba to do likewise in DC. Cubas’ net tourism visits will have increased again. Canada is top origin of tourists.
3. Remittances hard to estimate but sociologists and anthropologists try, and US government estimates higher at $2.5 BN. Median salary of a Cuban is $1 per day, so remittances important.
4. Authorized ‘self-employment’ (with remittance money often), and with 4 estimated working per license, 2M jobs.
Challenges for small businesses. One buys 1950s cars from US, and repairs them, but cannot import so couple takes empty suitcases to Miami twice a week and brings back spare parts as personal effects. 13 employees, and ROI is 18 months. Tax rate jumps with 6th employee and with 11th employee. So tax hurts job creation but is intended to prevent accumulation of wealth. Three family members have a license for one part of business, to avoid paying higher taxes. Sunday job driving tourists paid double the weekday job as a mechanical engineer.
Cuban economy has dysfunctions even without US economic sanctions, owing to Cuban government.
Factors for change
Raoul Castro young at 86 years old, but announced in second inauguration would step down Feb. 2018 (though not as First Sec of the CP). Raoul is planning for succession but Politburo of 17 members, 8 born before 1945, 9 younger but 4 are newly added and inexperienced. Bad planning.
Another factor for change is Cuban national elections which used to be one candidate one seat. Now grouping candidates and seats into collective districts so that each voter gets 3 choices (blank, annul, or selectively vote for one winner without another). So, does give CP an indication of candidates who are more or less popular. Straight ticket is recommended but voters can avoid it.
In the last general election 1.8 M voters voted nonconforming, 1/5 of Cubans. Cuban government has been considering reforming voting, but so far has not done so. Reason for differences in voting seems to be Key’s “friends and neighbors politics” – local candidates got higher totals than national candidates of politburo.
Every five years have CP congress; one motion was to change official slogan “Sovereign, Independent, Socialist, Prosperous and Sustainable.” Motion was to insert “democratic” – failed -- but Raoul announced new slogan by decree(!).

Question time
No state banks giving ordinary citizens a mortgage, so depend on remittances of tens of thousands a month, few authorized to transact so quasi illegal market developing as Cuban front person buying a property for investment by a Miami resident. Problem is risk of drug money laundering.
Why trade embargo not draconian? Very comprehensive but has fewer US staff monitoring sanctions than with Iran. Ongoing impact remains important but I think not as much as other factors mentioned. Main impact is now at margins – things Cuban government would be undertaking it cannot – paying much more for shipping and insurance. Even though any one of us under Obama and Trump could use a credit card – but cannot in practice because banks fear regulatory burden of Cuban transactions.
Trump has reauthorized agricultural exports, tourism reaffirmed under Trump.
If sanctions were lifted, would Cuban economy get moving again, would help economy but not as much.
Are Cuban security forces reliable? Proud of professionalism. Crossed Atlantic for 2 wars in Angola and one in Ethiopia, during Cold war – unlike USSR and USA in failed wars. But equipment is obsolete. One idea is US to give fast patrol boats to chase drug smugglers. When Raoul was minister of armed forces, in cold war with 11.2 M pop, sustained bigger percent in war than US did in VN war. Since early 1990s, only one big riot in Cuba. Regime very successful in preventing riots and the big one in 1999 was put down by Interior troops only. Armed forces very loyal and professional, accustomed to civilian control (though many ministers ex forces. Would these forces respect a new civilian authority if it happened – hard to know.
Would we expect a shrinking economy with a shrinking population? Highly educated workforce could help this but incentive system is not there, even talented people do not work hard.
State permits FDI only when it sets salaries.
Obesity rate in Cuba? Don’t know but at beginning of 1990s after collapse of Soviets, there were severe cases of malnutrition. Impression is Cuba is below median by Latin standards of obesity. Briefed McNamara for the Cuban missile crisis reunion conference (exhausting) and car drove really well but roads were bumpy, infrastructure lacking.

Tuesday 23 January 2018: Ambassador Jack Matlock, PhD, “Russia, Then and Now”
Currently Ambassador in Residence at Troy University, Matlock is a former Ambassador to Czechoslovakia and the USSR, and former Director for European and Soviet Affairs on the National Security Council. 

Jack Matlock in his study

Amb. Matlock gave a lively presentation answering several questions concerning Russian involvement in the 2016 US Presidential Election. He explained that, while the Russians may have been in support of the Trump campaign, any tampering with election results was minimal. Additionally, Amb. Matlock provided insight on the distinction between the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union. He explained that the two events were independent of each other and, historically, are separated by approximately two years. He closed the presentation by expounding on the United States' favorable approval rating in Russia, as opposed to other countries, and the reason for the approval rating. Amb. Matlock’s presentation was stimulating and diminished several assumptions about the Soviet Union and Russia. - Justala Simpson, Huntingdon College

Tuesday 13 February 2018: Professor Gabriel Aguilera, “Venezuela Present and Past: The Rise and Decline of Chavismo.”

Gabe Aguilera teaching AWC

Professor Aguilera is Associate Professor of Security Studies, Air War College, and a specialist in Latin American Politics, Comparative Politics and International Political Economy. He will assess the implications of recent events in Venezuela.
Gabriel Aguilera joined the Air War College faculty in July 2011 where he directs the Core Course, United States National Security and Decision Making. He teaches and lectures on global security, international political economy, and Latin American studies. He serves on the college’s Curriculum Integration Team that supervises all core courses taught at the Air War College and directs military instructor development in his department.
Dr. Aguilera’s research and publications have explored democratization, the politics of banking regulation, and financial crises in Latin America. He has published research and essays in scholarly journals and magazines, including Comparative Politics as well as edited volumes. Currently, he is editing his manuscript, The Politics of Banking Crises in Latin America During the 1990s. His new research studies how democratization is affecting civilian control of Mexico’s armed forces.
He has been a full-time Assistant Professor at the Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico (ITAM) in Mexico City and California State University, Chico where he directed the International Relations Program. He has also been a Visiting Scholar at ITAM and the Claremont Graduate School as well as Adjunct Professor at Scripps College, Occidental College, and Chapman University.
Dr. Aguilera received his Ph.D. and Master degrees in Political Science from Harvard University, Master’s degree in International Affairs from the University of California at San Diego’s School of Global Policy and Strategy, and Bachelor’s in Political Science from Stanford University.

[The economy. ] Please note, for clarity, the following notes have been reorganized slightly into more chronological order. Rise of Chavismo
Maduro and populism of Chavez.
Question Time

Tuesday 13 March 2018: no program 

Wednesday, April 11, 2018: General Michael Hayden, USAF (ret), “Global Security”
The only man to have been head of both the CIA and the NSA, Gen Hayden returns to Montgomery and Maxwell. A frequent commentator on television news and the author of the acclaimed book Playing to the Edge: American Intelligence in the Age of Terror, he will discuss global security.

Grant Hammond, Introduction to speaker Prepared remarks I. 2017 year of disruption

II. 2018 Year of consequences, 5 points, arranged from short fuse to longer III. What should we do about this? Question Time Conclusions

Tuesday, May 8, 2018: Air War College Professors, Regional Reports

The last program each year is a report from professors at the Air War College on visits to different areas of the world as part of the Regional and Cultural Studies portion of the curriculum. Three professors will report on their findings from their travel in March and entertain your questions.

Dave Sorenson (Middle East), Dawn Murphy (Japan, Republic of China, and Republic of Korea) and Amit Gupta (South Asia)

Dr. David S. Sorenson - Chair, Department of International Security Studies (biography from AWC) Dr. Amit Gupta - Department of International Security Studies (biography from AWC) Dr. Dawn Murphy - Department of International Security Studies (biography from AWC)
Introduction Dave Sorenson: Morocco, Turkey and Egypt
Dawn Murphy: Japan, Korea and Taiwan
Amit Gupta: South Asia: Question Time

Special Programs and other Activities

Spring 2018, Great Decisions Program
Register at ALWAC.org for this seminar series, featuring excellent readings and lively, local speakers. Topics and study booklets (with expert articles, maps and photos) are produced by the Foreign Policy Association and published the first week in January. The program begins in mid-January and runs for 8 consecutive weeks. This year, we offer them at the most popular time (Tuesdays, 2 pm) to assist more people to participate. Location is 106 Bartlett Hall, behind our usual Whitley building at 231 Montgomery St.

Collaboration with Global Ties Alabama,
an educational, charitable institution based in Huntsville which assists the U. S. Department of State in arranging and hosting participants in the Fulbright Scholars exchange and visitors program and placing visiting groups of scholars and students with those in the local area for dinners or brief home stays as they visit the Capitol, historic sites in the Montgomery area, the Southern Poverty Law Center, the Alabama Shakespeare Festival and local universities.

Interaction with some of the International Officers stationed at Maxwell AFB for a year and their families

Members are also invited to:
Matthew West, Doctors Without Borders, "South Sudan and Syria,"
Montgomery, 6:30 pm, 18 April, at Gayle Planetarium, 1010 Forest Avenue.

Revised 5/7/18 by Jeremy Lewis