Charles S Bullock, Mark J Rozell (eds).  2010.  The New Politics of the Old South.  4th Edition.  Rowman & Littlefield.
Table of Contents.

Bullock [0]. Charles S. Bullock III, "Introduction: Southern Politics in the Twenty-First Century"
Part 1: The Deep South States
Bullock 1. Cole Blease Graham Jr., Laurence Moreland and Robert P. Steed, "South Carolina: The New Politics of the Palmetto State"
Bullock 2. Charles S. Bullock III, "Georgia: A Study of Party and Race"
Bullock 3. Patrick R. Cotter, "Alabama: From One Party to Competition, and Maybe Back Again"
Bullock 4. David A. Breaux and Stephen D. Shaffer, "Mississippi: Emergence of a Modern Two-Party State"
Bullock 5. Wayne Parent and Huey Perry, "Louisiana: African Americans, Republicans, and Party Competition"
Part 2: The Rim South States
Bullock 6. Mark J. Rozell, "Virginia: From Red to Blue?"
Bullock 7. Charles Prysby, "North Carolina: Tar Heel Politics in the Twenty-first Century"
Bullock 8. Michael Nelson, "Tennessee: Once a Bluish State, Now a Reddish One"
Bullock 9. Andrew Dowdle and Joseph D. Giammo, "Arkansas: Deep Blue and Bright Red at the Same Time?"
Bullock 10. Ronald Keith Gaddie and John William Shapard, "Oklahoma: Red State Rising"
Bullock 11. Michael J. Scicchitano and Richard K. Scher, "Florida: Political Change, 1950-2008"
Bullock 12. James W. Lamare, J. L. Polinard and Robert D. Wrinkle, "Texas: The Lone Star (Wars) State"

Bullock [13]. John C. Green, Lyman A. Kellstedt, Corwin E. Smidt and James L. Guth, "Conclusion: The Soul of the South: Religion and Southern Politics in the New Millennium"


Bullock and Rozell, Ch. South Carolina
by Russ Barnwell, Sheridan Farnell, & Kim Jenkins, Sp[ring 2012

Population: 4,625,364
Demographics:

White: 66.2%
Black: 27.9%
Asian: 1.3%
Latinos/Hispanic: 5.1%
Electoral Votes: 8
Capitol: Columbia
Admitted to the Union: May 23, 1788 (8th State); during Civil War, South Carolina was the first to secede from the Union and the last to rejoin
Largest Cities by Population: Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Greenville, Rock Hill
South Carolina
o The foundation of South Carolina’s politics was the concern of race and the maintenance of white supremacy, focused on class-based populist politics.
o Daniel Elazar’s traditionalist political culture: paternalism, elitism, social hierarchy, limited role of government, and conservativism.
o Marked by one-party politics, low voter turnout, a large percentage of disenfranchised African-Americans, white political leaders using race for their benefit, and malapportioned state legislature from the early twentieth century to post-WWII.
o 1950s-1960s
o “increased urbanization and industrialization, economic development, pressures of the civil rights movement, and a more heterogeneous population; on the part of politicians decline in racist rhetoric, enlarged (and eventually) integrated electorate, and reduction of political influence in rural areas”
o SC paralleled the rest of the US in this time (post-WWII to the 1960s), as a solid one-party Democratic state, it became more competitive with the Republican party by the 1960s
o In 1948 the state supported native son, Strom Thurmand, on the Dixiecrat ticket, in the US Presidential election
o The Democratic Party, although it won the next three elections, never won decisively as it had in the first half of the twentieth century.
Electoral Patterns 1960-2004
o In 1964, Thurmand switched from the Democratic party to the Republican party, and endorsed Barry Goldwater for the Presidency.
o In November, 59% of the states’ votes were for Goldwater, this was the first time in modern history that the Republicans received Deep South electoral votes
o Goldwater’s, who had opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act, votes in the South were comprised mostly of blue collar rural whites, who wanted to defend the Jim Crow system of racial segregation.
o Goldwater did not win the Presidency, but the Democratic party punished the Democrats who had supported his candicacy, including Second District Congressman Albert Watson, who was stripped of his seniority by House Democrats, resigned, and switched parties.
o He won his seat back in a special election in 1965, becoming the first Republican elected to congress since Reconstruction.
o In 1966, Joseph Rogers, the first Republican gubernatorial candidate in decades, carried three counties, and received 42% of the vote. His respectable showing was accompanied by Republican victories in contest for 16 seats out of 124 in the lower house of the state legislature.
o Over the next 15 years, the Republican party consistently won one and sometimes two of SC’s six seats in the US House of Representatives, in addition to Thurmand’s seat in the US Senate.
o In 1974, due largely to internal conflict amongst the Democratic Party, the Republicans won a close gubernatorial victory. At the Presidential level, Republicans only lost one election between 1964 and 1980, to fellow Southerner, Jimmy Carter in 1976.
o In 1980, SC voted for Ronald Regan, which began the shift toward two-party competition in the state.
o During the final two decades of the twentieth century, the Republican Party won every election in the state, three of the five gubernatorial elections, continued to split the states’ two senate seats, and won half or more of the states’ seats in the House of Representatives in eight of eleven elections.
o In the 1994 Congressional elections, Republicans in SC gained 2/3 of the House seats, and have not lost that majority since.
o 1994 was also significant at the state level, as Republicans gained a majority in the lower chamber for the first time in the century.
o The 1998 elections were a bit of an anomaly, Democratic candidate, Jim Hodges, whose platform included the creation of a state lottery that would provide money for educational improvements, received the votes of 20% of self-professed Republicans who were also unhappy with the incumbent, Governor David Beasley when he changed his stance and opposed the Confederate flag’s placement at the top of the state house.
o In 2000, most considered, due to the strength and consistency of Republican support in Presidential elections, it a lock to vote for George W. Bush.
o Bush carried the state with just under 57% of the vote, improving on his father’s 48% in 1992, and Dole’s 50% in 1990.
o For the eighth time out of the last nine Presidential elections, and for the sixth consecutive time the Republicans took the state’s eight electoral votes, confirming the Republican hold on SC’s Presidential vote.
o In 2002, Democrats were optimistic that on momentum of 1998’s state elections, the party would have resurgence.
o The Republicans nominated former congressman Mark Sanford to oppose Hodges for governor.
o Republican Lindsay Graham won the Republican nomination for Thurmand’s recently vacated senate seat. He ran against former SC Supreme Court Justice and college president, Alex Sanders.
o Republicans clinched victories in both races in addition to relegating Democrats to only two positions in state-wide office. Furthermore, Republicans won 4 of the 6 congressional races:
o Maintained control of both chambers of the state legislature.
o Their victories were due to strong showings in the three vote rich urban corridors, centered around Greenville-Spartanburg in the north, Columbia’s suburbs in the midlands, and Charleston in the coastal low country.
o Today the upstate urban corridor contains about 28% of voters. The midlands contain about 24% and the coastal and Pee Dee urban areas have another 25%, leaving approximately 23% scattered among the remaining rural counties. Only the rural areas, with half the number of counties and about 1/4th of the population, are predominately Democratic. This pattern has not changed substantially since the 1970’s.
o In 2004, long-term US Democratic senator, Ernest F. Hollings, retired his seat. To replace him, Democrats nominated Inez Tenenbaum, the state superintendent of education. Republicans nominated congressman, Jim DeMint. The race was highly contentious, and vast sums of money were expended by both candidates.
o The expectations were that Republicans would win the Presidential election, that they would maintain their control of US House delegation, and that they would retain control of the state legislature. The Senate race remained the Democrats’ only hope. As expected, Bush carried the state with 58% of the vote, Republicans retained their 4 to 2 margin in congressional seats, and they retained majorities in both houses of the state legislature.
o “The stunning blow to the Democrats came to Tenenbaum’s loss to DeMint in the Senate race, not only did she lose, she lost by a 54% to a 44% margin.”
o The three urban corridors propelled Republicans to victory again.
o Exit polls revealed that Bush led Kerry among most of the standard demographic and socioeconomic groups in the state: men and women, all age groups, all income categories above $30,000 per year, Protestants and Catholics, and so on. The only exceptions were Kerry’s success among low-income groups and African-Americans.
o “The racial divide that has characterized SC voting since the late 1960s, again was the most prominent dividing line within the electorate; Bush received 78% of the white vote in the state, while Kerry received 85% of the black vote.”
Party Organizational Development (1960-2004)
o Prior to the 1960s, there were so few Republicans in SC that there was nothing to organize and consequently, the Democrats had no need to organize either.
o Between 1962 and 1965, Republican state chair, J. Drake Edens Jr., built the state’s first genuine party organization.
o “By 1966, the Republicans had established a well structured, multi-divisional headquarters with a cadre of full-time salaried administrators.”
o While the Republican party developed a complex and efficient system of party organization in SC, the Democrats, fraught with internal struggles and conflicting national and local images tied to civil rights, stagnated in organizational development.
o By the 1980s, Democrats began to adjust to new national party rules and the presence of African-Americans in the state party. “The South Carolina Democratic Party began to concentrate more of its organizational effort on meeting the growing Republican threat, particularly as Republican success in Presidential elections began to trickle down to state and local elections.”
o At the beginning of the new century, South Carolina had developed a highly competitive two-party system.
The Elections of 2006
o In 2006, the gubernatorial election was the most watched race. Incumbent governor, Mark Sanford, along with Louisiana governor Kathleen Blanco, and Ohio governor, Bob Taft, had been named as one of the three worst governors in America by Time Magazine. Despite this, Sanford won the nomination of his party with 65% of the vote.
o To face Sanford, the Democrats nominated state senator Tommy Moore, who promoted himself as a moderate with significant experience in state government.
o Sanford raised extensive campaign funds—about $8 million—compared to Moore’s approximate $3 million.
o Sanford won 55% of the general election vote.
o Additionally, Republican incumbent lieutenant governor, Andre Bauer, narrowly defeated Democratic challenger Robert Barber with just over 50% of the vote.
o State Treasurer, Grady Patterson, a veteran incumbent Democrat, was defeated by Thomas Ravenel. Ravenel, a real estate developer from Charleston, received 52% of the vote and was considered a rising star among statewide Republican candidates until involvement in drug-law violations in 2007 ultimately led to his removal from office and a federal prison sentence.
o “Defeats not withstanding and with ample room to be more successful, Democrats continued to be well organized and to anticipate two-party competition in the 2008 state-wide elections, as well as the congressional and state legislative.”
The Elections of 2008
o The presidential election was the focus in 2008.
o Primaries began early in 2007.
o Arizona Republican Senator John McCain won the endorsement of Senator Lindsey Graham, who along with now Governor Mark Sanford had led McCain’s 2000 primary campaign in South Carolina, which had been a particularly hard fought and bitter loss to George W. Bush.
o Mitt Romney gained the support of Senator Jim DeMint.
o Mike Huckabee courted South Carolina Evangelicals, and made a direct appeal to them and ordinary South Carolinians.
o McCain consistently seemed to be the front runner, but won with a disappointing 33% plurality.
o Huckabee received 30% of the vote.
o Fred Thompson and Romney each received 15%.
o New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani received 2%.
o Ron Paul received 4%.
o On the Democratic side, the race was between Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, while John Edwards, himself born in South Carolina, fell to gain attraction.
o Propelled by African American support, Obama won 55% of the vote.
o Clinton received 27% and Edwards 18%.
o 54% of Democratic primary voters were black.
o Both winners were eventually nominated by their national party for president.
o In the general election, McCain received 54% to Obama’s 45%.
The Primary Campaign of 2012, further analysis by Barnwell, Farnell and Sheridan
o In the 2012 Republican primary, Gingrich led amongst voters who identified themselves as “Born Again” or “Evangelical”—a group which, according to CNN exit polls, comprised 2/3 of the Republican electorate.
o Romney led amongst the 1/3 of voters in the state who did not identify as “Evangelical” or “Born Again”
o The support of religious conservatives propelled Gingrich to a decisive plurality—garnering 40% of the vote. Romney, who led most polls prior to the final week before the primary, received only 28% of the vote. The other two candidates, Santorum and Paul, received 17% and 13% respectively.
o Gingrich’s victory was due, at least in part, to strong debate showings in the Palmetto State.
o The debates showed Romney assuming a largely defensive position in hopes of winning on the momentum of his recent win in New Hampshire without making any major attacks.
o The momentum, however, was not enough for Romney, and Gingrich’s boisterous debate performances saved his candidacy.
o Gingrich has assumed this same defensive position in debates in Florida—the contest following the South Carolina primary—which has, according to the most recent polls, contributed to the evaporation of Gingrich’s once double-digit lead in the state.
o Gingrich’s hope for the nomination will certainly not be lost if he loses in Florida. The former history professor from Georgia will most certainly note South Carolina’s bellwether status in Republican politics—since 1980, the winner of the South Carolina Republican primary has also consistently gone on to win the party’s nomination.


Top of Page


Bullock [0]. Charles S. Bullock III, "Introduction: Southern Politics in the Twenty-First Century"
Part 1: The Deep South States

Bullock 1. Cole Blease Graham Jr., Laurence Moreland and Robert P. Steed, "South Carolina: The New Politics of the Palmetto State"




Bullock 2. Charles S. Bullock III, "Georgia: A Study of Party and Race"




Bullock 3. Patrick R. Cotter, "Alabama: From One Party to Competition, and Maybe Back Again"




Bullock 4. David A. Breaux and Stephen D. Shaffer, "Mississippi: Emergence of a Modern Two-Party State"




Bullock 5. Wayne Parent and Huey Perry, "Louisiana: African Americans, Republicans, and Party Competition"


Part 2: The Rim South States

Bullock 6. Mark J. Rozell, "Virginia: From Red to Blue?"




Bullock 7. Charles Prysby, "North Carolina: Tar Heel Politics in the Twenty-first Century"




Bullock 8. Michael Nelson, "Tennessee: Once a Bluish State, Now a Reddish One"




Bullock 9. Andrew Dowdle and Joseph D. Giammo, "Arkansas: Deep Blue and Bright Red at the Same Time?"




Bullock 10. Ronald Keith Gaddie and John William Shapard, "Oklahoma: Red State Rising"




Bullock 11. Michael J. Scicchitano and Richard K. Scher, "Florida: Political Change, 1950-2008"




Bullock 12. James W. Lamare, J. L. Polinard and Robert D. Wrinkle, "Texas: The Lone Star (Wars) State"




Bullock [13]. John C. Green, Lyman A. Kellstedt, Corwin E. Smidt and James L. Guth, "Conclusion: The Soul of the South: Religion and Southern Politics in the New Millennium"


Top of Page