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PSC 207: Public Administration | PSC 306: Public Organizations

Richard J. Stillman (ed), Public Administration: Concepts & Cases, 8/e

Students' Outlines:Conceptual Readings | 7e Cases | 8e Cases | 9e Cases

Thanks to contributors; compiled by Dr. Jeremy Lewis |  Revised 30 Mar. 2009
Chapters: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 |

Stillman Chap. 1: Scope & Purpose
1: Martin, "Blast in Centralia No. 5: Mine Disaster No One Stopped."  [7e]

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Stillman Chap. 2: Formal Structure of Bureaucracy.
2: George Lardner, Jr., "How Kristin Died" [7e]

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Stillman Chap. 3: Environment, Ecology of Public Admin.

3: Case Study, Norma Ricucci, "Dr. Helene Gayle and the AIDS Epidemic"
Charles U Walters ‘07

Dr. Helene Gayle (explains her life in much detail) eventually from many of her experiences she used her knowledge to create an integrated center for HIV, STD, and TB prevention under the Center for Disease Control focusing on prevention of HIV/AIDS
Close to 800,000 Americans are thought to have AIDS
Eventually the program became international
The Case Study:
- reframing the issue—common misperception at one time that only gay white community was infected, yet it has the greatest impact on populations of color.
- creating partnerships—she has communicated with many organizations in order to help the movement survive and grow stronger
- building relationships—stresses the importance on collaboration between federal government, different communities and global partners
- politics of public health—interpersonal skills and technical expertise have proven essential, as a “technocrat” she assists with formation of public policy
- setting goals and targeting strategies—a shared vision is pivotal, then you can take steps on reaching the goal, also engendering a community among staff is critical
- bureaucratic challenges—prioritizing funds, being and black woman as a director
- leadership—trust and confidence needs to be built
- managing the bureaucracy—has a large staff (1400) all are important members,  open communication and creativity, supports open and shared leadership
- lessons learned of effective management
o developing integrative targeted strategy
o developing broad coalitions
o possessing/demonstrating interpersonal skills
o exercising political skills
o possessing and exercising technical expertise
o setting a shared vision
o fostering pragmatic instrumentalism
o committing to values
o empowering staff
o taking risks
o exercising management and leadership

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Stillman Chap. 4: Political Environment & Power.

Casamayou’s “The Columbia Accident”
By Sam Mosier, 2007

Space shuttle Columbia disintegrated upon reentry on February 1, 2003. The disintegration was caused by malfunctions on the left side of the orbiter due to failure on NASA’s behalf to fix the problem before reentry.
External Forces
? The problem for NASA was actually not so much one of being pulled in different direction by rival masters, but one of how to adapt to new external constraints imposed upon in by both White House and Congress, that generated new launch pressures.
o After the Challenger accident, certain reforms had been implemented, but following the Columbia accident it was revealed that these reforms had all but disappeared.
? In 1992, Daniel S. Goldin became NASA’s Administrator
o Promoted long-term exploration of Mars and the building of the Intl’ Space station
o Motto: faster, better, cheaper
o Facing budget cuts, NASA avoided personnel downsizing at the space center and instead targeted the Space Shuttle budget for cuts that included jobs that dealt with safety inspections of the preflight reviews.
Internal Launch Pressures
? During the period of drastic personnel reductions along with unchanged, ever expanding program responsibilities, and unrelenting internal pressures pushed NASA to meets its launch date of Node 2 of the space station section, Feb. 19, 2003. This is when the damage first began.
? The future of NASA’s human space flight was on the line.
o NASA was on probation due to being overbudget and behind schedule.
o This explains why shuttle managers ignored the seriousness of the foam shedding because the shuttle kept coming back safely.
Two Worlds: Two Perceptions of Risk
? Filming covering Columbia’s liftoff recorded the foam strike.
o Senior managers did not see serious risks from the damage. They were more concerned with meeting the flight schedules.
o NASA, contractor engineers, and photo lab engineers saw serious risks
? They were prevented from further accessing the damage before the shuttle returned home.
The Columbia Accident: Déjà vu All over again?
? In retrospect, this accident could have been avoided. Early warnings of safety problem that ultimately caused the accident were repeatedly ignored.
? The big question: whether or not NASA can learn from this accident to prevent a third accident of this magnitude?
o There must be a long-term commitment and dedication of political forces outside of NASA to human space exploration
o NASA needs to realistically adjust its launch schedules according to available resources.
o Effective leadership that nurtures a risk-averse culture through every level of the organization is essential.
o NASA needs an independent robust safety organization.
o Create better communication and control over field offices and reduce the rivalry among intercenter rivalry.

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Stillman Chap. 5: Intergovernmental Relations.

5: Susan Rosegrant, "Wichita Confronts Contamination"  [7e]

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Stillman Chap. 6: Internal Dynamics & informal Group.
6: William Langewiesche, "American Ground: Unbuilding the World Trade Center." [notes needed]

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Stillman Chap. 7: Decisionmakers & Subsystems.

Case Study 7, James P. Pfiffner, “The Decision to Go to War with Iraq”
Brady Lamborne, spring 2007
“The president forcefully argued that America was vulnerable to terrorist attacks and that a hostile regime in Iraq might be willing to share its weapons of mass destruction technology with terrorist. So the United States had to act promptly to prevent such a nightmare.”

“Invading Iraq was coming under considerable criticism from a group of public figures and defense intellectuals known as neoconservatives.”

 “In 1998 the organization wrote an open letter to President Clinton arguing that Saddam’s Iraq was a major threat to the United States as well as a destabilizing force in the Middle East.”

“After what happened on September 11, 2001 President Bush and part of his administration began considering it immediately.”

“Also George Bush assembled a broad international coalition to confront Saddam and throw his troops out of Kuwait.”

 “On September 17, 2001 President Bush signed a top-secret plan for the war in Afghanistan that also directed the Defense Department to plan for a war with Iraq.

President Bush signaled his decision to pursue war with Iraq in the State of the Union message on January 29, 2002.”

“As the various last-minute peace attempts failed, President Bush decided to attack. At 8 p.m., March 17, the president declared that “Saddam Hussein and his sons must leave Iraq in 48 hours” or the United States would commence military action against them. Two days later, 130,000 U.S. and British troops began a land invasion of Iraq and a rush to Baghdad.”

“Prior to the president’s campaign to convince Congress to grant him authority to attack Iraq, the White House asked the CIA to prepare a National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq which was about the potential threat from Iraq that they posed to the United States.”

“The evidence connecting Saddam Hussein to Al Qaeda was never solid. Neither the FBI nor the CIA was able to establish that 9/ll terrorist Mohammad Atta had been in Prague to meet with an Iraqi official, as the Bush administration had asserted.”

“Another explanation for the administration’s inaccurate claims about Iraq’s WMD was that the intellectual professionals of the government were pressured to suit their analyses to the policy goals of the administration.”

“Disagreements in the international community and within the American public about the wisdom of war with Iraq were mirrored in divisions within the U.S.”

Basically on why the United States went to war with Iraq was because of false pretense of the mass destruction of weapons that Saddam was said to have in his possession for the purpose of warfare against the United States.

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Stillman Chap. 8: Decisionmaking & Incremental Choice.
8: Nagel, "MOVE Disaster."  [7e]

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Stillman Chap. 9: Communication.
9: Susan Rosegrant, "Shootings at Columbine High School: Law Enforcement Response."  [7e]

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Stillman Chap. 10: Executive Management & Effectiveness.

Case Study 10: Langwiesche, "The Lessons of ValuJet 592"
By Sam Mosier, Spring 2007

• May 1996- Fishermen witnessed a twin engine DC-9 ValuJet plane crash into the Florida Everglades with no apparent signs of trouble.
• According to Langewiesche there are 3 types of Accidents…
o Procedural- obvious mistakes with simple solutions
o Engineered- material failures that were overseen
o Systems- (The ValueJet type) most elusive. These types of accidents are science’s illegitimate children, a bastard born out of confusion that lies within the complex organizations with which we manage our dangerous technologies.
• The airline system is not only complex and that safety is never first. Airlines are concerned with making $$. Inevitable bad little bad choices are made and can snowball.
o ValuJet pilots were not unionized had to pay for their own training. They had low pay.
o ValuJet also used a lot of temp employees and contractors
o Captain Candalyn Kubeck and Copilot Richard Hazen were flying ValuJet 592 and had contacted controller Jesse Fisher about needing an emergency landing due to smoke in the cockpit. Hazen was directed to take the aircraft not to the closest possible airport but back to Miami where a better qualified emergency crew would be present.
o Known from start that fire was the culprit
o National Transportation Safety Board’s job is to examine important accidents and to issue nonbinding safety recommendations to industry and government and because the investigators have no regulatory authority and must rely on persuasion to influence events, it suffers from “linguistic stiffness”
o The press is NTSB’s effective voice. However, after the crash there is a tension between the 2 because the press was rushing for a story and NSTB was being cautious
o Several factors were discovered during the course of recovery that led to the flights doom
? The jet was old and had a series of electrical failures that had resisted the attention of a mechanic and mysteriously fixed itself
? The jet was loaded with potentially dangerous cargo- chemical oxygen containers
o The airplanes own emergency oxygen system was different than normal. They had been refurbishing old jets thru outside contracting to update the crafts. Most of the work was done by temps.
o Recovery of the black boxes showed that the passengers died in agony.
o It came out that certain inspectors with the FAA had been worried about ValuJet for some time- it was expanding too fast  and did not have the necessary manpower to accommodate to this factor
o The FAA only assigned 3 inspectors to the airline due to other factors including threats of terrorism. It appeared that the FAA had neglected its duties.
o A shakeup occurred for the airlines, Sabretech (outside contracted company), and the FAA
o According to Charles Perrow, if the system is large the possible combinations of failures are practically infinite.
o In order to keep such catastrophes from happening in the future we might need to consider the possibility of reregulation- a return to the old system of limited competition, union work forces, higher salaries, and expensive tickets
o Another approach is operational oversight in which the government would have detailed oversight of all the technical aspects of flight
o FAA- need to stop be so buddy-buddy with allies in the airline industry and need to try to enforce current regulations and even create new regulations by listening to lower level employees.
o It is necessary for the truth to be told and paperwork done right.

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Stillman Chap. 11: Personnel Motivation & Culture.

Deborah Sontag, Case 11: Who Brought Bernadine Healy Down?
by Kylie Piercy, Spring 2009 (another is below)

- The Red Cross was founded in 1881 by Clara Barton and became America's prime non-profit disaster relief.

- Today it is mandated by a charted and a 50 person board with several appointed officials.
- In 1991, Bernadine Healy succeeded Elizabeth Dole as Red Cross president.
- Since 1989 there have been three leaders and four temporary leaders.
- David McLaughlin a Red Cross board chairman said that Dole’s departure was similar to Healy’s but “Dole got out ahead of the game and stepped down”
- He also said Healy “brought it on herself”
- 2 biggest disasters under Healy’s presidency was Hurricane Floyd and Tropical Storm Allison
- Healy was seen as having to strong of a political stance and wanted so many changes fast.
- One of Healy’s mistakes was that on September 11th the Disaster Operations Center was run by two women with 60 years experience between them and because of their slow response they were fired.
- The main concern was her hard charged style was effective but made governors of the Red Cross uncomfortable
- Healy herself believes her downfall started in Jersey City. The Hudson County chapter thought embezzlement was going on by the director. When Healy found out she turned it over to a local prosecutor who indicted the director and book keeper on stealing funds from the Red Cross. Several board members were upset and said she was too harsh and should have suspended them without pay.
- Healy saw 9/11 as a disaster and set up the Liberty Fund which the board of directors didn’t like because they believed the Red Cross’s commitment to fair treatment to all victims were violated. They felt this fund was putting 9/11 victims into a special class.
- Problems with this fund :
o Sometimes the money would go into other funds because people are willing to give money now but not before hand and asking people to donate ahead of time there are little donations.
- Many board members didn ‘t like Healy’s political stance and after a vote of confidence in Healy’s leadership there were a 6 in favor and 27 against and October 26 Healy announced her resignation

Deborah Sontag, Case 11: Who Brought Bernadine Healy Down?
Jonathan Lyons, Spring 2007

 -Dr. Bernadine Healy, 57, former President of the Red Cross, a former cardiologist and aspiring politician. A former Harvard medical school graduate and mother of two

 -The Red Cross, founded by Clara Barton in 1881, generates 3 billion in revenues a year as a quasi-government bureaucracy.  Though successful, it is a difficult institution to lead. The leader must be a strong bureaucratic manager and also strive to be a people-oriented leader. The leader must also answer to the President and a 50+ strong board of governors (officials), seven of which are senior government officials.

 -Since 1989 there have been three leaders and four interim leaders, including Elizabeth Dole, who Healy succeeded.  Healy faced serious pressure over a slow response to the terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and the dismissal of two women who operated the Disaster Operations Center (DOC), the Virginia-based command center for disasters.

 -Healy’s hard-charging style was effective yet made many Red Cross governors uncomfortable.  When Healy uncovered significant fraud in one of her Jersey City, N.J. chapters, she turned it over to the local prosecutor’s office, which indicted the director and bookkeeper of the chapter on charges of stealing 1,000,000 in funds from the Red Cross. Instead of praising Healy, several board members criticized her for being “too tough” in Jersey City.

 -The Red Cross provides 45% of the national blood supply. Healy hired several high-profile executives to oversee the process of upgrading blood collection, testing and processing, which had come under fire by the F.D.A. prior to her hire

 -Healy saw 9/11 as an extraordinary disaster in a class of its own, so she set up a Liberty Fund, with a team of 800 outside auditors.  This did not sit well with the board of directors, who believed the Red Cross’s commitment to equity for all victims was violated by creating the fund. Though the governors endorsed the Liberty Fund, they would not forget the fact she created it

 -Healy also stumbled with her attempt to include Israel’s Red Shield of David, called Magen David Adom (M.D.A.) in the international federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent societies.  Two months after assuming command in September 1999, she made a speech to international officials chastising them for the inequity of the exclusion of M.D.A. and how the American Red Cross will “make inclusion happen now”. When her vision started to lose steam, the American Red Cross board was persuaded to withhold $4.5 million in annual dues to the international federation, 25% of the federation headquarters’ budget.

 -Many board members disliked Healy’s strong political stance, as another of the Red Cross credos was neutrality. After a governor’s vote on the confidence in Healy’s leadership went 6 in favor of Healy and 27 against her on October 23rd, Healy publicly announced her resignation three days later

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Stillman Chap. 12: Public Budgeting.
Stillman Case 12: James K. Conant, “Wisconsin’s Budget Deficit”
By Brandon Shrout, Spring 2007
Introduction Wisconsin’s Budget and Balanced Budget Requirements
-Wisconsin’s biennial budget is passed in odd-numbered years.
-During even-numbered years the legislature holds a “budget review” or “budget adjustment” to make adjustments if necessary.
-Wisconsin’s General Fund budget must be balanced each year.  This requirement is contained in state statutes, rather than in the state’s constitution.
-Wisconsin’s constitution allows the state to run a deficit in a given year, as long as a tax is levied “for the ensuing year, sufficient, with other sources of income, to pay the deficiency as well as the estimated expenses of the ensuing year.”
Coping with Fiscal Stress:  The FY 2001-2003 Budget (Act 16) A Growing Deficit, the “Budget Reform” Bill, and Act 109 Structural Factors:  Expenditure Decisions Structural Factors:  Tax Cuts Cyclical Factors Remedies Proposed and Implemented Remedies Consequences

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Stillman Chap. 13: Implementation.
Case 13: Michael Elliott, "They Had a Plan."  [notes needed]

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Stillman Chap. 14: Politics & Admin -- Issue Networks.

Case 14: Laura Sims, Reinventing School Lunch
by Ryan Murray, Spring 2009

The National School Lunch Program is the largest and oldest of all child nutrition and food assistance programs.

Policy Issues Advocacy Coalitions at Work Documenting the Need for Policy Changes Regulatory and Legislative Reform Efforts Overall, Haas is recognized as a “policy entrepreneur” who was instrumental in raising awareness of the media and the policy makers to the problems of the NSLP and her reform efforts to improve the quality of school lunches.

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Stillman Chap. 15: Public Interest & De-Regulation.

W. Henry Lambright, “The Human Genome Project”
Charles U. Walters Spring ‘07

In 1998 J. Craig Venter announced he was starting a private company called Celera that would finish the sequencing of the human genome within 3 years for $300 million, which was four years ahead of the publicly funded $3 billion Human Genome Project. Conception: Adoption (86-90): Initial Implementation (90-93): Maintaining Momentum & Growing (93-98): The project is largely seen as a governmental success story.

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Stillman Chap. 16: Competing Ethical Obligations.
Robert S. Montjoy and Christa Daryl Slaton, The Case of the Butterfly Ballot
Charles U. Walters Spring ‘07 (another below)
The butterfly ballot designed by Theresa LePore for Palm Beach County, FL. had the Gore ticket located second down on the left side, but in order to vote for the Gore side, you had to punch out the third hole. Is it reasonable to blame one individual? What constitutes ethical behavior under differentiating circumstances?
Case 16: “Case of the Butterfly Ballot”
By: Brady G. Lamborne, Spring 2007
This is on the case of the butterfly ballot in which Theresa LePore of Palm Beach County Florida was involved. LePore had 25 lawsuits filed against her because they thought that she had caused Gore to lose the election for the design of her ballot. There are many reasons that led to the errors in voting: the type of ballot, the voting equipment, the polling place operations, and voter information and responsibility can lead to a mass confusion. There are a few ways that you can fix this problem

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