1. Contemporary public administration theory | Herbert Kaufman says NO
2. International Scope | B. Guy Peters says NO
3. Bureaucracy best option |
4. Efficiency and equity | NO: Julian Le Grand
5. Influence on policy | No, stereotypical bureaucracy
6. Coordinate federal, state and local |
7. Politically neutral |
8. Run like a business |
10. Performance Management |
11. Employment equity |
12. Employee motivation |
13. Incremental budgeting |
14. Budget flexibility |
15. Collective bargaining |
16. External controls |
17. Collective bargaining rights |
18. e-Governance |
19. Social Media g2c |
Kaufman says NO.
By Blair Casebere, 2015
A.) 3 Core ValuesA1.) Here designated representativeness,B.) The Quest for Representativeness
A2.) Neutral competence,
A3.) Executive leadership.
Commitments to values that have become incompatible can produce…gulfs in the realm of ideas and confusion in proposals for governmental reform.The quest for representativeness in government goes back to colonial times with the phrase “no taxation without representation.”C.) The Quest for Neutral Competence
It was through the legislatures that governmental policy was formulated and legitimated.
The legislatures ruled virtually unchallenged.
On the local level of govn’t, collegiate bodies were in charge.
Local executives labored under the same or perhaps greater handicaps than their state counterparts and therefore were no more a challenging force to the local institutions corresponding to legislatures than did the governors to the state bodies.
The constitutional specifications for the Presidency constituted a counter-trend to the apparent value system of governmental designers in the early America.
However, there were still widespread expectations that the Congress would be the prime mover for the government, as held in the “Whig conception,” which views that the presidency would be subservient to the legislature.
Contrast: “Stewardship theory.” Presidential authority is independent.
The Stewardship theory would be enunciated much later in history.
The enthronement of the legislature and the uncritical faith in the electoral principle.
By the time of the Civil War, voters found themselves confronted by many names on their ballots, and each change of party brought with it a change in virtually all govn’t employees.As early as the mid-19th Century, it had become clear to some people that legislative supremacy, the long ballot, and the spoils system did not in fact increase representativeness; instead they seemed to have the opposite effect.D.) The Quest for Executive Leadership
Disillusionment with existing government machinery was a result.
Reforms began to cast around for new governmental machinery that would provide a high level of responsible gov’t service while avoiding the highest cost of unalloyed representative mechanisms. This began the quest for neutral competence in government officials.
The value of this search was ability to do the work of gov’t expertly, and to do it according to explicit, objective standards rather than to personal or party or other obligations and loyalties.
That school of thought became, “Take administration out of politics.
This school of thought produced its own rational and mechanisms.
Rational: the now-familiar politics-administration dichotomy, according to which politics and administration are distinct and separable processes that should therefore be assigned to separate and distinct organs.
Mechanisms: Independent boards and commissions and the merit system.
The movement gathered momentum after the Civil War.
The exigencies of the times made it necessary for legislatures to delegate power administrative agencies;
The advocates of the neutral competence deflected delegation from the chief executives and the departments under their control to what was later to be branded “the headless fourth branch of government.”
The merit system made its greatest advances in the federal government. It’s first fruit was the federal Civil Service Act of 1883.
The Civil Service Commission built a wall between politicians and gov’t bureaucracy and, with the aid of new legislation, reduced civil servants political activities to little more than voting.
The training of civil servants became more formal and systematic as time passed.
Neutral competence is still a living value among students of gov’t, career civil servants, and the general populace.
The great stress on neutral competence proved to be a mixed blessing.
The weaknesses of the gov’t resulting from the work of the prior two quest gave impetus to the supporters of executive leadership.
For both earlier philosophies, and the mechanisms to which they gave rise, created a thrust toward fragmentation of government, toward the formation of highly independent islands of decision-making occupied by officials who went about their business without much reference to each other or other organs of the gov’t.
As officials and agencies became more accomplished in their respective areas of specialization, they tended to resent efforts of “laymen” or “amateurs” to intervene.
The drive towards fragmentation could not be effectively countered by legislative bodies and investigative powers.
Congress has confined itself to providing general standards guiding the exercise of administrative discretion and to occasional intervention to correct abuses or to force specific changes in policy.
Legislatures are general too fragmented and too slow to perform effectively.
Courts have not succeeded in integrating effective performance of the government either. On the contrary they have come to accept this reality.
The centrifugal drives of the representativeness and neutral competence institutions thus found no importance counter-force in the legislatures or the dispersion of governmental policy-making processes.
There were widespread criticisms of this fragmentation.
The office of the chief executives had became their hope because it furnished the only available means to achieve the end sought.
The 20th century was well on its way b4 executive leadership became a systematic quest and gathered great speed. One of the 1st signs of the new emphasis was the rapid spread of the executive budget in gov’t.
A 2nd sign was the administrative reorganization movement in 1917, which caused the reduction of a # of agencies, and they were grouped into comparatively few departments headed by officials appointed by the governor.
An administrative pyramid, with the governor standing at the apex was the commonly unreached goals.
“functional integration,” “grouping of related services,” and “need for coordination” echoded through state capitols to country court houses as chief executives became the center of governmental design.
There were occasional adjustments and readjustments in the machinery of government in the early part of the century, particularly during the emergence of WWII.
The 1st Hoover Commission was considerably less empathetic about strengthening the chief executive, the 2nd has displayed coldness to the concept.
A index of the developments in budgeting and administrative reorganization, is the increase in the size of the executive staffs.
Doctrinally, the sharp conceptual cleavage between politics and administration, which gained currency during the years when neutral competence was ascendant became an impedeiment to the justification of executive leadership.
Public Admin allows us to understand the effect which cultural, structural values have on each other.
There is a malaise in the study of Public AdminUniformity would be overwhelmingMajor problems with Public Admin Internationally
No common language
Usually a subset of Comparative Government1) Cross Nationally: using county by country might not be effective due to structural differences; e.g. extremely fragmented policy making in U.S. is not indicative of national character, but of our framework; so much conceptual thinking is based on U.S. natureMajor Problems in Generating Data
2) Low Level of Development: Comparative Admin was once a subset of Comparative Government; There was a peak in the 60’s and 70’s but has declined as the focus shifts towards the “politics” side; There are more similarities than differences in Public Admin, makes for little comparison; Bureaucratic governments are more focused on the execution of law rather than politics; problem in the dichotomy of governments
3) Policy Studies: This field overtook Public Admin because of the focus on politics rather than implementation1) Absence of theoretical language- major focus period was during the 60’s and 70’s so the current language reflects past
2) Absences of indicators of similarities- based on structural and cultural differences
3) Subtle differences can make a huge difference- e.g. Germany vs. U.S.
Charles T. Goodsell says it is.
By Blair Casebere, Fall 2015
Addresses that bureaucracy being the best option sounds ludicrous.
Goes through some life stories. Ex: cop car unrightfully pulling him over.
Goodsell uses these stories to say when we interact bureaucrats, their conduct often isn’t what we expect.
Although we have a negative light on incompetent and ineffective, on the whole and in comparison to most countries and even the business sector in this country, performed surprisingly well.
The media often does not mention the profession of the public administration of the call to public service and has been dramatically misleading about public employees and government agencies.
These is a wide gap between bureaucracy’s reputation and its record.
(Argument is very ethos-based without any evidence outside of personal experience.)
Big government agencies often face the same characteristics of being imperfect, very complex, usually reliable, and seem to only come to our attention only when they break down.
We tend to see the one letter that was a few days late and not the thousands that are delivered on time to shape our view of the whole.
We need to realize that our bureaucracy is FAR better than that found in many other parts of the world.
In other countries:
The principle aim of bureaucrats is not to help the public, but to put the minimum amount of work in.
Most ppl. in the world would be thrilled to receive their mail on time and safely.
Addresses that we should have an American standard of comparison.
US government bureaucracy measures up to US private businesses.
The mantra that business works and government fails must be reexamined.1.) The Cigler-Neiswender study concluded that American government textbooks stress bureaucracy’s size, power, and uncontrollability.Concludes with a definition of bureaucracy: The institutions of public administration in the US; Organizations and their unit officers whose employees are paid from public funds, at all levels of gov’t in the US.
However, we later see that huge size is not necessarily characteristic of bureaucracy—in fact, small size is more common.
2.) Bureaucracies are continuously monitored and investigated by auditors, performance evaluators, legislative committees, ect., to the point that it is disabling.Ex: Environmental Protection Agency,The vase range of organizations included cries out for thoughtful assessment of individual bureaucracies rather than a characterization by stereotype.
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.
Max Weber regarded his model of bureaucracy as ideal: useful, for description and analysis.
Many academic theorist and researchers contend that by possessing these characteristics, an organization tends to exhibit certain patterns of behavior.
Goodsell does deny that much if not most of American public administration is made up of organizations that answer to many if not all of Weber’s basic structural characteristics.
Most administrative component of US gov’t are still essentially “bureaucracies” in the Weberian sense. However, they are not necessarily big.
Bureaucracy and its administrations make crucial contributions to society.
Equity vs Efficiency: The Elusive Trade Off
I. Intro: There is a trade off
An increase in social welfare may lead to a decrease in desire to work which creates inefficiencyII. Two Types of Trade Offs
Does the notion of this trade off actually make sense?
A. ValuesIII. Efficiency as Economic Growth
i. not necessarily looking to achieve one certain goal. Rather look at the extent to which one goal was attained as to another
ii. the values must be substitutable for one another
i. is it possible to allocate resources within the economy that are fully equitable and efficient?
ii. an allocation of resources is efficient if it is impossible to move toward the attainment of one social objective without moving away from another
iii. Productive capacities--how much of one value must be sacrificed to achieve the other
A. efficiency is incompatible with equity in economic growth (as a trade off)IV. Efficiency as Pareto-Optimality
B. Increasing economic production is not a sensible objective on its own--only if it generates utility in some way (usefulness)
i. Objective then becomes generating utility
C. Is there a trade off?
i. difficult to measure
ii. very complex and multi-layered
A. an allocation of resources is efficient if it is impossible to make one individual better off without making another worseV. Equity
i. equity/efficiency trade off will exist if there is no feasible allocation that is simultaneously equitable and efficient
A. allocation of resources is equitable if no individual envies any other's positionVI. Conclusion
i. "I cut; you choose"
ii. ie - fairness
A. value vs production trade off
B. efficiency vs equity trade off does not make sense
i. by making one the objective, you are devaluing the other
ii. objectives must be equal to measure a trade off
Provokes images of inefficiency, Massive waste, poor service, mindless drones etc.
Charlton Heston saidMyth #1 bureaucracies are immensely wasteful
“Of course, government is the problem. The armies of bureaucrats proliferating like gerbils, scurrying like lemmings in pursuit of the ever-expanding federal agenda testify to that amply.”
Actual bureaucracy play many valuable and indispensable roles in society
70% of Americans agree that when something is run by the government, it is usually wasteful and inefficientMyth #2 business is always better than bureaucracy
waste actually only constitutes for 2 cents of every tax dollar
Findings about Gov vs businessesMyth #3 we want gov to act like a business
Charles Goodsell “in short, there is much evidence that is ambivalent. The assumption that business always does better than government is not upheld...when you add up all these study results the basis for the mantra that business is always better evaporates
Government funded universal health care plans provide better care to more people at lower cost.
we don’t want the cheapest system for dispensing justice in our societyMyth #4 Bureaucracy is a major cause of government growth
unlike business, public agencies are not just concerned with the bottom line.
when a program is out dated it is terminated not kept around for no reasonMyth #5 Bureaucracies usually provide poor service
majority of government service is good. There will always be bad service but you get that in the private sector as well.
We must look past the government bureaucratic stereotypes
Top of page
Many goals are competing, so that sometimes we need to have tradeoffs.The Tiebout Hypothesis of citizen mobility and Oates’ Decentralization Theorem.
Many of the economic and political claims about federalism rely on 2 principles:
The Tiebout Hypothesis of beneficial intergovernmental competition leads to a principle for assignment of authority between national and subnational governments: subsidiarity.
While most justifications for subsidiarity are normative, in order for the Tiebout forces to work, policy must be decentralized, factors must be mobile, and externalities must not be problematic.
Scholars claim that decentralized policy provision enhances governmental honesty, efficiency, and gives governments the chance to innovate policy.
Arguments made by Madison in Federalist 10: as politicians seek higher office they will be put in competition with one another to see who can build a reputation of honesty. Unitary gov’ts lack this advantage, as any leader elected has every incentive to be corrupt.
As citizens settle into communities that match their own preferences, at the local level the sorting produces homogeneity, while at the regional level, communities will be heterogeneous.
With sufficient learning, aggregate national welfare is improved, when compared to a centralized solution.
Local gov’ts are not more efficient. Elected politicians are eager to please their constituents by providing services, and will spend the money to boost their electoral success.
Some scholars suggest that federalism promotes economic growth.
When there is interstate competition, with high mobility, and centralized control over monetary policy, there comes to be a hard budget constraint and encouraging the states to practice prudent fiscal policy.
The lack of corruption and pro-growth institutions that occur when this method is applied has been seen in China, India, Russia, the EU and the US.
Federalism is often claimed to improve political out-comes, such as respect for individual rights, group autonomy and preservation, and improved representation.
Just as with economic claims based on Tiebout forces, the theory of right-preserving federalism is limited by the extent on which voters are mobile.
The potential for states to discriminate against some citizens prompts some to suggest that rights should be provided at the national level, and such may be needed for the creation of new rights, such as recognition of same-sex marriages, if not state experimentation first.
Democratic outcomes only improve when ppl feel that their vote will make a difference, making them more likely to show up to smaller scale elections. Thus, the more authority local gov’t has, the more voters will sense it important enough to participate.
Federalism may improve electoral accountability if voters are more likely to get accurate information about their local politicians, but other institutional factors such as electoral rules muddle the improvement.
The principles of Tiebout sorting and subsidiary from Oats suggest that federalism would be a fine resolution to ethnic tension.
To defend the boundaries of federalism, research on safeguards will continue, but increasingly it will recognize a broad array of safeguards, and consider how those safeguards complement one another to defend the boundaries.
Top of page
NO: Robert Behn
- What psychological barriers are in the way of performance management?
- Is performance management actually useful politically?
- Do citizens think about performance beyond just their personal service by government?
- How does thinking differ among citizens, legislators, officials, policy officers, and assistant-secretaries.
Notes by Blair Casebere, 2015
The Psychological Barriers to Performance Management: Or Why isn’t Everyone Jumping on the Performance-Management Bandwagon?
All gov’t, formal and informal, favor performance management.Performance management goes by many names, is defined in a variety of ways, and includes an array of concepts.All these concepts and strategies are motivated by the purpose to improve.
Performance management covers a variety of concepts from performance pay for public employees to the privatization or public services.For ex: Pres. George W. Bush has offered a “management agenda” to “improve the management and performance of the federal government.” It was a National Performance Review without any little red book.There are possibly 3 explanations as to why public managers have not been aggressively employing the concepts of performance management.
Concepts of performance management are not completely a theoretical, but there are questions about how these ideas ought to be applied in democratic government.
Public managers everywhere have an incentive to employ the ideas of performance management.
Performance management lives more in rhetoric than reality.1.) Most obvious reason: Practical: Performance management doesn’t work.The leadership team of any government organization faces a variety of challenges, such as having to operate within the confines of a large number of significant constraints.
2.) Political: Performance management isn’t politically useful.
3.) Managerial: Performance management is difficult.
4.) Psychological: The explicit use of performance measures creates some valid fears.
5.) Psychological: Performance management requires a variety of people to think differently about the overall responsibilities of government.
6.) Psychological: The failure of performance management to sweep the public-management world many not have been carefully examined or explicitly defined.
The political and regulatory constraints do not appear to be the sole reason why so many public executives have not jumped on the performance-management bandwagon.
No single reason is valid for All individuals or circumstances.
When citizens think about government performance, they naturally emphasize personal result rather than societal results.
Citizens have to figure out 3 different things.1.) What parts of this government might actively affect me?Rational thinking isn’t necessarily common or easy.
2.) How would these parts affect me?
3.) How might I evaluate the net effect of the collection of personal consequesnces that these potential impacts will have on me?
6 forms of thinking
Citizen ThinkingWhen citizens think about these steps they are more worried about resources, change, and strategies needed.Legislative ThinkingWhen legislators think about the “results” of government’s efforts, they tend to place more emphasis on where the inputs are immediately deployed than on what outcomes might be eventually achieved,Public-Employee Thinkingwhen public employees think about the consequences of their work, they are concerned about avoiding mistakes that will produce certain punishment.Policy thinkingWhen many reflect on the challenge of improving the work of government, they focus on creating better policy rather than on managing better within the existing policy.Assistant-Secretary ThinkingWhen ambitious political appointees consider what they can accomplish while in office, they tend to choose to craft a new policy innovation rather than to improve their organization’s capacity to perform.Big-Picture thinking
When these political appointee accept their position, they are also aware they will only be there for a short time.
A new policy can be designed by an assistant secretary in 24 month, whereas it takes much longer to improve the management of organization.
Also, because assistant secretaries are so invisible, they hardly think that any improvement in their organization would be credited to them.When many people think about the challenge of improving government performance, they are so overwhelmed with the enormity of the task, that they are blinded to the opportunity to create some meaningful improvement through a series of individually small, but collectively significant actions.These 6 diff. kinds of thinking can be divided up another way—into 2 categories based on their motivation.1.) Self-interest: Citizens, legislators, public employees, and assistant secretaries think in these terms.These 6 methods of thinking are not going to go away anytime soon, and if performance management is going to live up to its claim, we need to get over these 6 barriers.
2.) Social thinking: “Policy thinking” and “big-picture thinking” reflect societal attitudes.
-As a hypothetical construct, motivation usually stands for that which “energizes, directs and sustains behavior.”
-There are four major variables that influence motivational behavior-Individual characteristics-Individual Characteristics are compared to the “raw materials” that someone brings to the workplace
-Work environment characteristics
-External environment characteristics-A study by “Rawls and his associates”found that students entering the non-profit sector (primarily government) were significantly more dominant and flexible, had a higher capacity for status, and valued economic wealth to a lesser degree than did entrants to the profit sector.-Job Characteristics make up the second major set of variables that can be modified to affect motivation involve what the person actually does at work-- that is, the nature of the job or the collection of tasks that comprise the job.
-No real differences existed between the groups on need for power and need for security.
-Several studies indicate that public managers experience significantly lower levels of satisfaction than do heir counterparts in business.-Like the understanding of individual characteristics is deficient, so is the understanding of Job characteristics.-Work Environment Characteristics that can be changed or modified are placed in two subcategories: immediate work environment characteristics and organizational actions.
-However, the measurability of individual performance, degree of goal clarity, as well as degree of job challenge have been identified as most important.-The most critical factors in an immediate work environment are the peer group and supervisor.-External Environment Characteristics are the fourth major variable that can affect or modify employee motivation.
-Organizational actions are classified into provisions of system rewards, provisions of individual rewards, and the creation of an organizational environment.
-Surprisingly, the article says that more information has been collected on Individual and Job characteristics than in the Work Environment, where they claimed that little research had been done in both categories.
-Goal crispness, personal significance reinforcement, the stability of expectations,diversity of values in the workplace and quality of supervision are key factors listed in the article in reference to raising employee motivation levels.-Particularly, it refers to the changes or anticipation of changes that have powerful impacts on an individuals work behaviour.-External environments can be usefully subdivided into five different categories: socionormative, political, demographic, economic, and technological.
-Concluding the list of motivational techniques presently used by employers is extensive: monetary incentives, goal setting, flexitime, job enlargement, job enrichment, behaviour modification, participation, award and recognition plans, discipline, and counseling.
-However most research focuses on four basic methods: monetary incentives, goal setting, job design, and participation.
NO: Seong Soo Oh
and Gregory Lewis (2009)
Notes by Nick Howell, Fall 2013
Can Performance Appraisal Systems (PAS) motivate not only extrinsically motivated staff but also the intrinsically motivated staff? PAS might actually discourage the work effort of the primarily self motivated federal workforce. Very few federal employees believe that PAS increases their productivity.
Employees that are self motivated and work for the satisfaction of the labor
Motivation occurs when three psychological states are created
-Experienced meaningfulness of the work
-experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work
-knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
Governments rely on Separable consequences ie pay promotions working conditions etc.
-Employees may not realize how strongly monetary rewards motivate them but governments still face major obstacles in linking pay to performances a means of improving government productivity.
YES: Ian Hill, Holly Stockdale and
Brigette Courtot (2004), "Squeezing SCHIP: States Use
Flexibility to Respond to the Ongoing Budget Crisis"
Notes by Skye Esry, Fall 2013
Early 2000's budget deficitState Children's Health Insurance Program
Early on, states were dipping in to "rainy day" funds
deficit of $78.4 billion in 2004
budget cuts included medicaid, K-12, higher education, public safety
Fiscal Year 2002--"dodged the first budget axe"ELIGIBILITY
popular among consumers, providers, politicians
not an entitlement
Fiscal Year 2003--more cuts
lowered upper limit
more difficult to apply
SCHIP drastically reduced uninsurance rates from 12.6% to 10.1% between 1999-2001
How did SCHIP programs change during 2003
Cuts back on enrollment ratesENROLLMENT PROCEDURES
not an entitlement--families won't be accepted if the budget can't afford it
term limitations and more paper work requirementsOUTREACH
1/3 of states made it more difficult
2/3 of states simplified the process
2002- a majority of states had begun to reduce outreach spendingBENEFITS
2003- even more cuts
mass media/community outreach cut
local outreach still significant
benefits largely protectedCOST-SHARING
only two states surveyed reduced benefits for children
charge premiums, enrollment fees, copaymentsPROVIDER REIMBURSEMENT
a majority of states increased fees in 2002-2003
2002- only one state surveyed reduced provider reimbursementCROWD-OUT
2003- almost 1/2 of the states surveyed reduced provider reimbursement
children must be uninsured for a period of time before being eligibleADMINISTRATIVE CUTS
states rarely turn to crowd out to reduce program costs
do not effect program operations
- Organization tools differ from other tools used in Public Administration.- The materials that comprise organization tools are autonomous goal forming creatures called human beings.I. Natural System
- Human beings have the need to preserve themselves, their values, and their self images: They have survival needs
- Public Administrators are no different
- Human beings have a strong tendency to become interlocked in an unplanned, spontaneous system without a goal referred to as the Natural System of Organization.- One criterion- SurvivalII. The Need for External Controls
- Informal norms and roles grow up spontaneously to protect the survival needs of the incumbent
- In order to accomplish their mission the natural system reaches states of equilibrium and can develop homeostatic processes to reduce deviating swings and restore these states with counter swings.
- This reduces the risk of failure
- Do not have decision-making organs so they cannot be studied by methods of logical or policy analysis.
- Unlike artificial governments who have decision making organs and outputs; whereas natural systems have outcomes- Potential conflict between the owner’s interest and the natural system (between the cost benefit analysis of goal accomplishment and survival needs)- Thompson advocates more external controls over public employees
- Administrators are too compassionate towards people because we are brought up in small intimate groups called families
- When an incumbent of an organizational role develops a relationship with the people or client; it gives the client more pull perhaps in the form of nepotism or favoritism.
- This pursuing of individual preferences and goals can sometimes come at the expense of organizational goals.- Ex. The ombudsman in Denmark, a Swedish position who hears the complaints of citizens regarding improper treatment by bureaucrats. He then has the power to investigate the institution and secure information so that he can make recommendations for a change and publicize the results.
We shift our focus from good or bad to whether a particular decision, a set of decisions, or a pattern of decisions is right or wrong, and whyConclusion about ethical decision making in government
This approach rests with two broad philosophical traditionsDeontological, consisting of decisions based on fundamental principlesExplicit standards of right and wrong are a defining feature of American governmentdecisions are based on duties or principles that are either right or wrong in themselves, the results being irrelevant to moral judgmentTeleological, consisting of decisions based on calculations of their likely consequences of resultsoften referred to as utilitarianism, decisions are judged by their consequences depending on the results to be maximizedU.S. and state Constitutions and laws are an impressive collection of definitions of right and wrongThere is some tolerance among citizens for less egregious forms of corruption
much of the study of ethics in American government is embedded in the constitutional-legal perspectiveconflicts of interest, blatant exercise of political influence, small monetary exchangesThere is strong evidence that people are more inclined to obey the law if they believe the law to be just and fair, and if they are of the opinion that there is procedural justice in the administration of the law
bribery, extortion or exchanges of large sums are ethically unacceptable
Regardless of the law, there is relatively widespread tolerance of petty corruption in American government
indicates that absolute principles of ethics are usually bent depending on the seriousness of the ethical breachthe larger deontological issue here is the identification of fairness, equity, and official benevolence as high-order ethical principlesProcedural controls established during the reform movement to reduce corruption were generally successfulevidence that these anti-corruption procedures work is the research indicating that when such procedures are taken away to make government more businesslike, there is an increase in corruptionAt the time of the reform movement, it was thought elected officials worked in the realm of valuesThese assumptions have been Kantian (that there are absolute principles of right and wrong, independent of results or consequences, and that public administrators will adhere to these values)Public administrators live and work in a world that is unrelentingly teleological (policy and program results rule)Kantian assumption is correct; civil servants are inclined to support values such as civic virtue, honesty, procedural fairness, equity and human dignity
citizens expect their government to be fair and equitable even though those concepts are difficult to definePublic administrators practice “bounded ethics” where the administrator functions within the limits of enabling legislation, with limited budgets, usually advocating or at least supporting the purposes of the agencyCivil servants' work is embedded in rules, guidelines, inspectors, forms and reports, and other impedimenta of ethics enforcementthis ties into their sense of right and wrong or moralityWhy was there a HUD scandal, and Ill Winds scandal, an S&L scandal with all these procedures?These are primarily political scandals, rather than bureaucraticAs previously governmental functions are shifted to the private sector, it is safe to assume that corruption will increase
inspectors' task is primarily to look down for scandal, not up
(1) ethics of decisions are based in the constitution(s), laws, and regulationsDemocracy and Ethics: The Issue of Accountability
(2) rules, regulations, reports, oversight, and inspectors enhance the potential for ethical decisions
(3) professional standards and codes of ethics also enhance ethical decision making
(4) public administrators practice a form of bounded ethics that generally accepts the purposes and policies of the agency and practices ethics within those bounds
(5) the most notable ethical breaches in recent years have been political
(6) citizens are concerned with issues of fairness, equity, and justice
(7) as govt moves in the direction of privatization, the potential for ethical breaches rises
(8) the study of public policy and the practice of policy analysis in American universities is teleological and utilitarian, while most of the theory coming from those associated with the new centers of the study of ethics is deontological
The issue of accountability is central to the practice of government administrationConclusion to ethics and democracy and the issue of accountability
the issue turns on the question of whether bureaucracy acts without controls or accountability
the question of controls and accountability is usually caught up in the political battle between the policy preference of legislators and elected executives
Bureaucrats tend to be responsive, within the law and their appropriations, to executive direction
there are very few examples of bureaucratic agencies operating outside the ordinary range of legislative and executive accountability
It is widely believed that there are serious problems of bureaucratic control/accountability
there has been a wide range of legislation establishing prohibitions against conflicts of interest and elaborate reporting procedures designed to prevent such conflicts
The effective administration of governmental affairs is diminished
these procedures are primarily designed to catch those who are unethical, rather than to prevent unethical behavior
such controls inhibit innovation and creativity
(1) there has been a widespread perception that public bureaucracies are beyond control or unaccountableFuture ethics research should include:
(2) most evidence indicates that bureaucrats are accountable and controlled
(3) there has been a sharp increase in ethics controls on bureaucrats and a decline in latitude or administrative discretion
(4) adding to procedures designed to prevent unethical behavior, there are now procedures designed to catch the unethical
(5) policy gridlock may result in the possibility of administrative role reversal with the accompanying ethical dilemma for government administrators
In the present case, we are reducing administrative capacity and increasing political control, with the probability that there will be more rather than less corruption
(1) focus on settings, professions and cultures in which ethical issues occur and measure behavior against the cultural expectations and professional standards appropriate to the research context
(2) researchers should compare ethical standards and behavior between settings, professions, and cultures
(3) should assess the effect or result on the behavior of government officials of traditional procedural and managerial controls with modem approaches
(4) should measure the actual results of education and training on behavior
(5) assess the influence of privatization on government corruption and on ethics
(6) measure the effects of reduced administrative discretion on both administrative effectiveness and ethics
Daniel DiSalvo- No
by Jeremy Wolfe, Fall 2013
• Chris Christie comes in as governor of New Jersey
• He takes on the $11 Billion budget gap and took on the unions• A Unionized Government
• He signed and executive order on his first day in office preventing unions to make political
• also wants to impose a one-year wage freeze, change pension rules to limit future benefits,
• New Jersey Education Association spent $6 million attacking Christie because of these
• It was found through this that the cost of public-sector pay and benefits (oftentimes exceeds
contributions-subjected them to the same limits as corporations
and require that teachers contribute a tiny fraction of their salaries to cover the costs of their
the private-sector) combined with unfunded pension liabilities for retired workers weigh
down state and city budgets.
• Many other states also have public-sector unions as the roots of their problems.
• Public-sector unionism can be grouped into 3 headings- compensation, amount of
• public-sector unions' political power leads to more government spending
government employment, and productivity and efficiency of government services• Chris Edwards of the Cato Institute supported this and showed how this happens.
• On the low end of the labor market, public-sector pays more while private-sector pays
more on the high-end
• With advanced degrees, the public-sector pay scale is slightly lower.
• Public-sector workers without private-sector counterparts are able to have major gains in
their salaries because of this.
• For example, in 2006, New York county police officers were paid an average of
$121,000 a year
• public-sector workers make on average $14 more per hour than their private-sector
counterparts and their wages and benefits have also grown twice as fast.
• In California, state workers often retire at age 55 with pensions that exceed what they
make while they are working.
• Lawmakers have found that increasing pensions is very good politics.
• They promise pension commitments then turn right around and borrow some of this
money to spend it paying for public services
• The hit pension funds recently took in the stock market highlights the underfunding that
results from not paying for public services that they consume.
• The skyrocketing pensions can cause a fundamental reordering of government spending.
• The extra pension money makes it hard for governments to do what is expected of
• Public Employee unions have reduced government efficiency and responsiveness
• government collective bargaining agreements touch on a wide range of economic
decisions, public-sector unions have extraordinary influence over government policies
• Public-sector unions distort the labor market, weaken public finances, and diminish
government responsiveness and quality.
NO: Social Media and the Federal
Government: Perceived and Real Barriers and Potential
By Bev Godwin et al.
Summarized by Blair Casebere, 2015
A.) The Context for Using Social Media Within the Federal Governmenta. Some agencies are using social media tools successfully, but many agencies are not using these tools, either because of perceived or real lack of resources, cultural resistance, or leagal or other barriers.B.) Barriers and Potential Solutions: Cultural Issues and Lack of a Strategy for Using These New Toolsa. Issue: Many agencies view the use of social media as a technological issue, instead of a communications tool, and management decisions are often based solely on technology considerations.C.) Employee Access to Online Tools
b. Proposed solution: The new Administration should communicate a government-wide strategy for using social media tools to create a more effective and transparent government.a. Issue: Many agencies block their employees from using sites like YouTube, Facebook, and Wikipedia becauseD.) Terms of Service
i. IT security specialist raise concerns that these high traffic sites pose a greater risk for malware and spyware
ii. Employees will waist time:
b. Proposed Solution: The new Administration should require agencies to provide access to social media sites unless the agency head justifies blocking certain sites.a. Issue: Most online sites required account owners to agree to terms of service that federal agencies can’t agree to, in particular:E.) Advertisingi. Indemnification and defense: if a federal employee, on behalf of their agency, creates an account on a social media site, they must agree not to sue the siite, nor allow the site to be included in suits against the agency.b. Many companies have been willing to negotiate on these issues, but they don’t want to negotiate separate agreements with dozens of different agencies.
ii. Applicable law and court jurisdiction: most terms of services also assert that a certain state’s laws apply to the terms use and that the state’s courts will adjudicate disputes
c. Proposed solution: The new Administration (through the National CTO, GSA, OMB, or some other central organization) shouldi. Established a single term of serves that covers all social media sites.
ii. Alert federal agencies that the benefit of using these sites outweigh the risk.a. Issue: Many vendor sites place ads on all their pages;F.) Procurement
b. What constitutes “advertising” is interpreted different across government.
c. Proposed solution: The new Administration should:i. Issue a memo stating that government agencies should accept this kind of contextual advertising as a byproduct of using social media sites.
ii. Set criteria for all agencies for when such ads are acceptable.a. Issue: Government procurement rules didn’t anticipate the flood of companies offering free tools to anyone who wants to use them. Agencies that want to use these tools face 3 issues:G.) Privacyi. Gratuitous services and gift authorityb. Proposed solution: The new Administration should work with procurement and ethics attorneys to ensure that:
ii. Choosing winners without competition
iii. Contract authorityi. Agencies can use free Web products and service
ii. Agencies do not need to use all products and services offered, as long as they have criteria for deciding which ones they use.
iii. Employees with clear business need can create accounts to use free services, as long as they have managerial approval.a. Issue: There is no guarantee that social media sites will protect people’s privacy to the same degree as federal agencies.H.) Persistent Cookies
b. Proposed solution: The new Administration should direct agencies to use a standard disclaimer to display on social media sites where the publish contenta. Issue: Agencies are banned from using persistent cookies without approval from their agency head, which effectively means the federal government isn’t using them.I.) Survey
b. Proposed solution: The National CTO or OMB should immediately rescind the previous guidance prohibiting persistence cookies and replace it with guidance that allows agencies to use persistent cookies to better serve customers’ needs.a. Issue: The Paperwork Reduction Act and OMB regulations, and OMB draft guidance require that agencies complete a lengthy process to obtain an OMB control number to survey and request information from the public.J.) Access for People w/Disabilities
b. Proposed Solution: The National CTO or OMB should issue immediate guidance that outlines exceptions to the PRA, such as using online surveys to solicit public opinion about federal websites, using social media to have online discussion forums with the public, ect.a. Issue: Under section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, all info. provided to the public via agency websites must be equally accessible to people without disabilities. Some multimedia sites do not currently provide the opportunity to include transcripts or captioning, and many agencies lack sufficient resources to provide these services on their own.K.) Administrative Requirements During Rulemaking
b. Proposed solutions:i. The National CTO should issue guidance requiring agencies to post their materials in accessible formats on their own websites, and that non-governmental sites may not be the sole location where content is posted.
ii. The National CTO and GSA should collaborate on developing a government-wide procurement vehicle to purchase tools that assist with 508 compliance, such as captioning software to make videos and webcasts available to ppl. with disabilities.
iii. The National CTO should work with major companies to make Web softwear, including social media software, fully accessible to ppl. with disabilities.a. Issue: The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) of 1946 sets rules for how agencies can communicate with the public during rulemaking, accept public comment on proposed regulations, etc.
b. Proposed Solution: The National CTO on OMB should issue guidance to help agencies use collaborative social media tools to enhance the rulemaking process, while still complying with the APA.