Aug. 2013, Discussed ideas from Taking Sides
Instructor placed the readings in context
Bourgnon is reviewing modern developments in PA theory, which entail several reform waves which broaden out classical theory - such as Kaufman's - into the modern era in which most civil servants are professionals with advanced degrees and expecting to have a broader say in implementing public policy. Kaufman's classic 3 core values perhaps need expanding today.
We noted that the core values are commonly not found in many developing countries where civil officials including poorly-paid police may expect to be bribed even for routine service.
5 Sep. 2013, Discussed ideas from Taking Sides
After two student presentations, the instructor placed the readings in context
PA developed from Western EuropeSince two other student presenters were absent, Dr. Lewis lectured impromptu on related concepts: hierarchy, centralization, order, files, jurisdictions, political "master-slave" civil servant relations
Tocqueville observed the lack of social hierarchy in US, and social equality -- but feared that made PA difficult.
Hierarchy of ranks was instilled in WAshington's continental army by Baron von Steuben of Prussia, and the concept took root. Hierarchy in civil service ranks is a looser concept; Americans are brought up having their democratic say in family and schools, and we should expect that in the public workplace also.
Napoleon's centralization in France cannot be replicated in the US where even small states have autonomy, and President Nixon's federal regions are not universal.
Order in Germany is interpreted as rationalism: everyone obeying the same rules (a fount of European jokes) -- but this is in tension with Anglo-American pragmatism (especially in Alabama).
Files (now records) established the insitutional memory, and have changed with technology
Master-slave relations are an awkward term in the context of US slavery -- but it means really that civilian elected officials control both the civil service departments and the military. This is very different from practice in many developing countries.
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