Government by "bureau" (office) rich variety of professions: 200 in federal govt alone military & police as well as civilian more exciting than you might think: special forces, SWAT teams, smoke jumpers ... not rubber stamping drones: many lawyers, PhDs, scientists ... highly professionalized, educated
span of control: 7 people face to face, more by telephone more by carbon copy, then Xerograph and mimeograph 20 people now via email and voice broadcast
public policy is universal: bureau must reach all Americans goal is compliance with laws making a profit is not a goal serving public and avoiding luxury effectiveness versus efficiency porous walls: media, congress, presidency/governorship, interest groups, citizens
US 6 M, states extra 12 M personnel DOD 3 M, larger than all private Corps. with size comes complexity large tasks demand large organizations e.g. invading Iraq, 120,000 on ground subduing Iraq, 135,000, + 100,000 contractors. Gen. Shinseki called for 400,000 -- and was retired quickly for each soldier on ground, many in logistical tail But many field offices found to have fewer than 100 people but many educational offices have few support staff -- very lean.
US largest in world; charities, churches, education, hospitals can make surplus if not profit multiple goals specified in charter overseen by trustees, not board of directors stakeholders but not shareholders
1890s 90% of office workers male 1910: 90% female social revolution, educated women independent (from lace dresses to serge jackets and plain cuffs.) 1920s: time and motion studies coordinated work of many thousands 2000s: professionals work flexibly, taking responsiblity
Bureaus replaced courtiers, writs, contracts large offices late C19th Rational, legal authority Permanent authority, permanent careers rules, files, tasks technical expertise secrecy
WHS, EOP, Depts, bureaus, agencies, IRAs, Govt. Corps.
Loose hierarchy in US, subunits independent of main dept
Presidency has short time horizon, bureaus long term Nixon expressed the frustration most clearly
Energy Dept (Carter), Homeland Security (W. Bush).
Reinventing Government (1992, Osborne & Gaebler; VP Gore):
Entrepreneurial government based on professionals block budgeting, flexibility, local autonomy shed middle management layer implemented by some states and partly by VP Gore but undermined by large budget cuts in 2000s. Next Steps (Mrs. Thatcher, UK, 1980s), Cut main govt depts give functions with clear goals and contracts to agencies accountability: measure and reward performance but: child support agency under Ros Hepplewhite Citizens Charters (Mr. John Major, UK, 1990s) customer relations, Citizens Charters doctors responsible for cost of patient treatments railways rated by punctuality, compensate clients for tardiness Privatization (Mrs. Thatcher, UK, 1980s; Steve Savas, NYC, 1980s) spread from UK to much of developed and ex-communist worlds "sold family silver" : 11% of UK GDP reduced subsidies compete with globalization shed jobs in inefficient steel works, coal mines but trains don't run as often, as safely, or on time booking train journey is complex, needs transfers between railway companies Total Quality Management (Deming, Japan since 1940s, US since 1980s, GE "six sigma"): managing statistics of performance, from manufacturing but excessive paperwork quantitative measures not always available -- or misleading educational reforms (US, 2000s) not quantifiable Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS, McNamara): to manage complex, long-term development programs cost-effective bombing via F-111? but leaves out leadership but puts accountants in charge