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PSC 309: Terrorism & Developing Countries

Students' Outlines:

Badey (ed), Annual Editions, Violence &Terrorism '12-13 | '10-11 | '08-09 | '07

Compiled by Prof. Jeremy Lewis, revised 21 Oct. 2013, with students' notes for unit 10
Note-takers: please give full info: article #, author, "title" -- as well as your by-line, term, year.

UNIT 2. Tactics of Terrorism
UNIT 3: State-Sponsored Terrorism
UNIT 4. International Terrorism
UNIT 5. Terrorism in America
UNIT 7. Terrorism and Religion
UNIT 8. Women and Terrorism
UNIT 9. Government Response
UNIT 10. Future Threats

Unit 1: The Concept of Terrorism

   1. Joshua Sinai, 2008. "How to Define Terrorism". [Blair]
- What are the problems in defining terrorism?
- Can we improve upon the State department's definition or the USA PATRIOT Act definition?

Joshua Sinai argues that defining terrorism is "the most ambiguous component in terrorism studies." He proposes a 'new definition' that addresses existing ambiguities.

2. Fred Burton, 2011. "Analyzing and Defining Terrorist Acts: What Types of Attacks Should Be Considered Terrorism". [Kaison]
- Can we establish a definition by considering each type of act?
- What predictive power is lost by excluding certain acts from the definition of terrorism?

3. James M. Lutz, 2010. "A Critical View of Critical Terrorism Studies". [Justin]
- How do we separate terrorism from other violent, criminal activity?
- Should state terrorism be included?
- Which types of governments can be counted as employing state terrorism?
- Does the critical terrorism studies school of thought have anything to teach mainstream CT studies?
- Does the concept of terrorism predate the modern era?
- What causes terrorism?
- How is it changing?

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Unit 2. Tactics of Terrorism

4. Captain Billy J. Huntsman, 2010. "Suicide Attacks on the Rise."
- Are suicide attacks just a tactic -- or a strategic means?

Reported by by Nick Howell
Suicide since Zealots has been used strategically -- to eject occupying power
Such attacks have been successful over time: Beirut baracks 1983.
More successful than other forms of attck.
Kami kazes may or may not have been effective, but struck fear into hearts of sailors.

[Article not with depth of data, even though likely correct.]

5. Ed Blanche, 2008. "The Al Qaeda Weapons Race Continues."
- Whart sorts of WMD exist, and how difficult would it be for a terrorist group to obtain, train and deploy such weapons?
- Have we underestimated AQ's ability to find WMD?

Ed Blanche provides an overview of Al Qaeda's efforts to produce weapons of mass destruction. Blanche argues that Al Qaeda's ability to produce these weapons has been largely underestimated.
Reported by Justin
Mursi, Eyptian in AQ was not actually killed but developing WMD for AQ

[Sources mentioned in text but not in footnotes]

6. Brian A. Jackson and David R. Frelinger, 2008. "Rifling through the Terrorists' Arsenal: Exploring Groups' Weapon Choices and Technology Strategies."
- How are weapons related to strategies of terrorism?
Considering the data tables:
- What are the most commonly used weapons singly and in combination - and why?
- Which weapons require more expertise to use?
- Which weapons are more effective for firing over a defensive wall?

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Unit 3: State-Sponsored Terrorism

7. Rogue Operators, Daniel Byman, The National Interest, No. 96, July/August 2008

    Byman examines the changing dynamics of state-sponsored terrorism. He concludes that the biggest challenge the United States faces is preventing "passive sponsorship" of terrorist organizations by states like Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, and Lebanon.
- Which states engage in sponsoring terrorist groups, and how?

Reported by Jeremiah
State passive rather than active support is today's main problem.
Hezballah diversified its sources of support, Iran no longer so important to them.
Many of the state sponsors are our allies, so difficult to work with.
Can try to train and build police more in these states.

[Deeper discussion, from Brookings, though without source notes]

8. William F. Jasper, 2009. "No State Sponsors, No Terror."
- How do states support terrorism? With what instruments?
- Who are the state sponsors and how can one counter them?
Reported by Blair [& some notes by Dr. Lewis from reading]
Mugniyeh, blown up in car, had been master of Hezballah bombings of US, French & others in Beirut.
Possibly credited with Argie, Khobar, Kenya, Tanzania, Cole & 9/11.
Unclear who killed him, though most likely Mossad.
Hezxballah has always disclaimed any link to him.
Sun Tsu, deception important
PLO-Fatah & Hamas, like states, use deception about responsibility for attacks and sponsors.
Not new: Arafat denied Black September was his.
1970s and 1980s Soviet netowrk sponsored much terrorism indirectly. Andropov strategy continued this.
Khoumeini in Iran picked US as Great Satan even though Soviets were persecuting muslim minorities actively.
Israeli incursion to Lebanon lost tanks to missles from Syria and Russia.
Russian trainers in large numbers worked in Iran.

9. Rolf Mowatt-Larssen, 2010. "Nightmares of Nuclear Terrorism."
- How might terrorists acquire and use nuclear weapons?

Reported by Kaison Darden
9/11 ushered in new era a large scale terrorist attacks
Pakistan issues
Worry about NK selling bombs to others.
Viability of NPT regime? NK has been able to break promises without punishment.

Biggest concern is that AQ will acquire a bomb, though so far only have pieces.

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 10. Michael Petrou, 2009. "A State of Terror."
- What is the risk that Somalia becomes a stronghold for terrorist groups?
- How dangerous are the policies and procedures of Al-Shabab?
Notes by Nick Howell, Fall 2013
majority of information comes from a somali journalist by the name of abdi dhmed abdul
Somalia mostly controlled by al-Shabab
Laws and control is similar to that of Afghanistan during the Taliban's rule.
Executions of rape victims, Speaking English, Movies, music and premarital sex are all illegal and many punishable by death
women forced to wear the hijab
Al-Shabab- “the youth”
grew out of the Islamic courts union, which was overthrown by Ethiopian troops with the support of American special Forces between 2006-2007
Controls most of Somalia
Most Somalis don't support the al-Shabab but are “ruled by fear”
some civilians have taken up arms and fought for the gov against al-Shabab
has displaced 250,000 Somali refugees to Kenya.
International affects
worst situation on the continent
could become a breeding ground for international terrorism.
Al-Shabab has sheltered several islamist terror suspects with ties to al-Qaeda
what can the US and her allies do to midigaet the danger from somalia?
Can we intervene without doing harm?
Brownwyn E. Bruton (international affairs fellow at council on foreign relations)
“if you want to deal with it properly, you're looking at an Iraq-style investment, where 20,000 peace keepers isnt going to do it –– maybe 40-60,000....it's going to be a 10 year effort”
suggests in humanitarian relief, economic suppoer and microcredit projects.
11. Helena Smith, August 2010. "Greece Will Be a War Zone, Sect of Revolutionaries Warns Tourists."
- What is the risk that economic austerity will turn anarchists to terrorism?
- What is the difference in strategy between the 17 November group and the latest terrorists?

12. Stephanie Hanson, 2009. "FARC, ELN: Colombia's Left-Wing Guerrillas."
- What Leftist groups are campaigning against the Colombian government, and is there any hope for the peace negotiations?
- What are the differences between the FARC and the ELN, and is either of them state supported?

13. Leah Farrall, 2011. "How al Qaeda Works: What the Organization's Subsidiaries Say about Its Strength."
- How is AQ constructed and what are its prospects for growth -- and remaining a threat?
- As AQ mutates into subsidiaries, will this prove more or less dangerous?
- Will the dispersal into subsidiaries of AQ loosen controls and weaken AQ?

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14. Jonathan Masters, 2011. "Militant Extremists in the United States."
- How do terrorist groups operate within the United States?
- What types of domestic terrorists are there?

15. Judith Miller, 2010. "New Yorkistan: Initial Lessons from the Latest Homegrown Terror Plot."
- NYC has been a target, but has it also emerged as a source of terrorists?
- What types of local New Yorkers become would-be terrorists, and why?
- How many plots have been thwarted by the NYPD's CT operations -- and how many can we expect in future?

16. Scott Stewart, 2010. "Escalating Violence from the Animal Liberation Front."
- Is it moral to set free animals imprisoned for research purposes?
- What types of offenses have the ALF perpetrated, and what sense are they terrorists?

17. Mark Potok, 2011. "The Year in Hate and Extremism, 2010."

- What US groups should be included among terrorists?
- Have domestic terrorists been coopted by the nonviolent right, such as the Tea Party, and therefore the violent groups been reduced -- or have the violent groups been stimulated?
- What is the effect on rightist militias of President Obama's being elected?

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18. Amani Ismail, 2009. "Communicating Politics Online: The Rhetoric of "Terrorism" and "Resistance." [Reporter]
- Can Palestinan groups use the media to develop a positive culture of terrorism?

19. Mark Hayes and Paul Norris, 2010. "Paramilitary Groups in Northern Ireland, the Media War and the State: Semantics and Symbiosis—A Comparative Case Study of the PIRA and UDA." [Reporter]
- Instead of relaying terrorist propaganda, did the media in Northern Ireland actually reflect the policies of the state?

20. Andrew Potter, Maclean's, July 2008.  "Jihad with a Hip-Hop Pose Is an Easier Sell with Youth." [Reporter]
- Is it feasible to recruit gangsta jidadis?

21. Omar Ashour, 2010. "Online De-Radicalization' Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy." [Reporter]
- Is there any way to provide moderate narratives via the media to de-radicalize a population?

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Unit 7: Terrorism and Religion

22. Thomas Rid, 2010. "Cracks in the Jihad."
- Does the separation of local and global terrorist groups reduce or increase the risk to the US?

23. Joshua Muravchik and Charles Szrom, 2008. "In Search of Moderate Muslims."
- What questions would identify moderate Muslim groups?

24. Kapil Komireddi, 2011. "India Must Face up to Hindu Terrorism."
- Has India defended itself against Hindu extremists -- and should it alter its approach?

25. Hüseyin Cinoglu, 2010. "Sociological Understanding of the Relationship between Terrorism and Religion."
- How has religion been exploited by terrorist groups?

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Unit 8: Women and Terrorism

26. Female Suicide Bombers: a Global Trend, Mia Bloom, 2007
- How do international terrorist groups exploit females?
- Why were so few women employed as terrorists in past decades?

27. Picked Last: Women and Terrorism, Alisa Stack O'Connor, 2007
- How should counter terrorism target the genders?
- Do women employ a different rhetoric of terrorism?

28. Claudia Forster-Towne, 2010. "Terrorism in Africa: The Role of Women in Terrorist Groups."
- How are young girls exploited in African wars?

29. Yossef Bodansky, 2010. "The Moscow Bombing: An Inevitable Victory for Moscow, but a Hard Struggle Ahead."
- What motivated Black Widows to place bombs in the Metro?

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Unit 9: Government Response

30. Fareed Zakaria, 2010. "The Jihad against the Jihadis: How Moderate Muslim Leaders Waged War on Extremists And Won."
- Have moderate political leaders managed to reduce public support for violence in Islamic societies?
- Have Muslim religious authorities been willing and effective in denouncing violence?

31. Arie W. Kruglanski, Michele W. Gelfand, and Rohan Gunaratna, 2010. "Detainee Deradicalization: A Challenge for Psychological Science."
- What variables determine whether a detainee can be turned from violence?
- What has been the experience of countries that have tried to re-educate detainees?
- is re-education too soft?

32. Andrew C. McCarthy, 2010. "Enemies, Not Defendants: Let the Law of War Meet the War on Terror."
- Should detainees be treated as combatants or defendants?
- What are the risks of using law enforcement prosecution against detainees?

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Unit 10: Future Threats

33. The Shifting Face of Violence, Theodor H. Winkler, 2008
- How will the war against terrorism evolve?
- Will the war on terrorism last a whole generation or just five years?

Winkler provides a broad overview of the challenges posed by the changing face of violence. He argues that states need "integrated strategies that address conflict prevention, conflict management, conflict resolution, and post-conflict reconstruction."

34. Al Qaeda at 20 Dead or Alive?, Peter Bergen, 2008
- How has Al Qaeda mutated since 2001? Can the US match its changes?

Peter Bergen predicts that al Qaeda is unlikely to attack the United States in the next five years and that while al Qaeda's media war for the hearts and minds continues, "Muslims around the world are increasingly taking a dim view of this group."
Notes by Nick Howell, Fall 2013
Al Qaeda's Main goal to transform the Muslim world into a militant Islamist caliphate is a complete failure
Bin ladens goal to replace current regimes (US backed) utterly failed
Tried to attack the US in hopes that the current Islamic regimes would fall and be taken over by Taliban-style Theocracies.
Had the opposite effect that Bin Laden had planned
Planned that it would cause the US withdrawl from the Middle East
Didn't count on the US being so outraged after the first direct attack on the continental US since the British burned the White House in 1814
The US now occupies Iraq, has strong relations with Arab regimes.
Bin Laden continued to view the US as his main enemy until his death
How strong/ weak is Al Qaeda
Marc Sageman (Former CIA officer)- says AL Qaeda is now leaderless and future attacks will likely come from self sustaining foot soldiers with no actual ties to bin laden's cadre.
Bruce Hoffman (Georgetown Professor)- warns that al Qaeda is on the march not on the run.
Since 2003 al qaeda and its affiliates have killed muslim civilans by the thouslands and support for al Qaeda has nosedived
Slightly outdated written in 2008. Said that most of what bin laden is currently doing I waging a media war sending out videos and audio tapes encouraging radicals to attack westerners and Jews. Talked a lot about bin laden being a threat in the next 5< year. That is no longer an issue.
35. John T. Picarelli, 2009. "The Future of Terrorism."
- How do leading experts differ on the nature of the terrorist threat, and what insights can law enforcement offer?
Notes by Nick Howell, Fall 2013
Future threats
Home grown terrorists who go over to places like Somalia to train, then return to America with their passports.
Bruce Hoffman (Georgetown Professor)- said that primary threat lies with al-Qaeda slowly reconstituting itself in Pakistan.
Rebuilding itself in Pakistan to attack targets in the US and Europe
Marc Sageman (Former CIA officer)- contends that the threat has shifted to radicalized individuals forming groups in the US and Europe.
Agrees that al Qaeda remains a threat he believes they will be limitied in their ability to attack international targets.
Threats come from al Qaeda's ideology, rather than a core organization.
When and Where does Radicalization Occur?
Recruits align their existing worldview with the ideology of a group and commit themselves to using violence to achieve the groups goals.
Communities responded more favorably to outreach efforts from state and local agencies than to those from the federal level. This affirms the critical role of local law enforcement in combating radicalization and terrorism
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