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PSC 371: Seminar in World Politics & Terrorism

Students' Outlines:

Badey (ed), Annual Editions, Violence &Terrorism 07-08 | 2008-09

Compiled by Prof. Jeremy Lewis, revised 27 Oct. 2009.
Note to note-takers: please give full info: article #, author, "title" -- as well as your by-line, year.

UNIT 1. The Concept of Terrorism
UNIT 2. Tactics of Terrorism
UNIT 3: State-Sponsored Terrorism
UNIT 4. International Terrorism
UNIT 5. Terrorism in America
UNIT 6. Terrorism and the Media
UNIT 7. Terrorism and Religion
UNIT 8. Women and Terrorism
UNIT 9. Government Response
UNIT 10. Future Threats

Unit 1: The Concept of Terrorism
- There is no commonly agreed upon definition of terrorism
- The former term “ I know it when I see it” has been replaced with definitional anarchy when applied to terrorism
- Terrorism involves 3 basic components: the perpetrator, the victim and the target of violence
- Fear is used as a catalyst to enhance the communication and elicit the desired response from the target

1. Ghosts of Our Past, Karen Armstrong, AARP Modern Maturity, January/February 2002
  • How can we understand the war on terrorism, by exploring past incidents that have served as catalysts over time.
  • How has the painful process of modernization and the “Great Western Transformation” affected the Muslim world?
notes by Jeremy Lewis, Fall 2007
  • The great Western transformation found economic development through social acceptance of rapid tech change.
  • Islamic agrarian societies eschewed change for stability
  • The Western transformation led to dominance over muslim societies
  • e.g. Napoleon's defeat of the marmalukes
  • muslim societies have resented their inability to match western power
  • by the late 1960s developed fundamentalist movements harking back to a golden age.
  • The US replaced the west europeans as the colonial power post war,
  • caused resentment by supporting unpopular regimes during the cold war and for oil supply.
  • Iran, Iraq, and Afghan leaders supported for US reasons of state.
  • OBL follows roughly the fundamentalism of Sayyed Qutb, imprisoned by Nasser in Egypt, killed in 1966.
  • he vowed to overthrow the governments of Egypt (secular), Jordan (secular) and Iran (Shiite)
  • US citizens must understand widespread resentment, even though few muslims support violent fundamentalists.

    “Ghosts of our Past” – Karen Armstrong
    notes by Maegan McCollum, Fall 2007
    • “To win the war on terrorism, we first need to understand its roots.”
    • In the 16th Century, countries in Western Europe, and eventually the American colonists joined a movement that historians refer to as, “The Great Western Transformation.”
    o Before, all great societies were based upon a surplus of agriculture, and were economically vulnerable.
    o They evolved when they found they could not reproduce their resources indefinitely. They began to experiment with new ideas and products.
    o These new Western societies were based upon technology and the constant reinvestment of capital.
    o While the Great Western Transformation gave people in the West more freedom, it demanded the fundamental change at every level: social, political, intellectual, and religious.
    o This period of transition was violent in the West. There were acts of genocide, terrible wars of religion, the exploitation of workers in factories, the plundering of the countryside, and erosion of moral and social codes and religious discontent in the newly industrialized mega-cities.
    o These new societies found by trial and error that they had to be democratic.
    o Modern countries found they had to bring outgroups, such as the Jews and women, in to the mainstream of society.
    o Countries in Eastern Europe that did not become secular, tolerant, and democratic fell behind. But those that did became so powerful that no traditional society (one based on agriculture), such as those of the Islamic countries, could stand against them.
    • Today Islamic countries are beginning the journey to modernity.
    o In the Middle East there is constant political turmoil; there have been revolutions. Autocratic rulers dominate the region because the process of modernization has not advanced enough to provide the conditions for a fully developed democracy.
    o “We view these countries as inherently backward and do not realize we’re seeing imperfectly modernized societies.”
    o The Muslim world has had such a hard time doing this because they have tried to modernize in 50 years instead of the 300 that it took the Western world to do so in.
    o Because of colonization, modernity did not bring freedom and independence, instead it came in a context of political subjection. The colonies provided raw materials for export, and in return they received cheap manufacturing goods that destroyed local industry.
    o Muslims resented being subjugated and were treated with contempt by the colonial powers. Furthermore, they realized their new rulers despised their religious traditions.
    o One of the most scarring effects of colonialism is the rift that still exists between those with a Western education and those stuck with the premodern ethos.
    o After WWII, the United States became the leader of the Western world.  Though the Islamic countries were no longer colonies, the U.S. still controlled their destinies by seeking allies and supporting unsavory governments and unpopular leaders to protect their oil interests.
    • By the late 1960s Muslims throughout the Islamic world had begun to develop fundamentalist movements—fundamentalism represents a rebellion against the secularist culture/thought of modern society.
    o Fundamentalists believe they are under threat, believe they are fighting for survival, and so they often lash out violently, especially when conflict is present in the region. Most do not turn to violence, but those who do distort the faith they are defending.
    o At first, fundamentalism is directed against one’s own countrymen or co-religionists. At a later stage, they take on a foreign enemy.
    o The terrorists claim that America is the aggressor and that they are waging a just war of self-defense.
    • “We in the First World (modern world) must develop a ‘one world’ mentality in the coming years.”
    o American and European citizens need to strive to understand the rest of the world.
    o “We have been warned that the war against terror may take years, and so will the development of this ‘one world’ mentality, which could do as much, if not more, than our fighter planes to create a safer and more just world.”

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    2. An Essay on Terrorism, Marc Nicholson, American Diplomacy, August 19, 2003

    • Is terrorism a “tool of the weak, used by disaffected groups or minorities to oppose the rule and (as they see it) the oppression of an established and militarily superior power”?
    Notes by Tyler Fletcher, Fall 2005 and revised by Jeremy Lewis, Fall 2007

    - Do terrorist means justify their ends?

    - It is a moral fiction to distinguish terrorism from the decision by a national state to wage war
    - state's legitimacy is based only on longevity and control of territory
    - Both involve death of soldiers, civilians, etc.
    - soldiers' deaths are no longer seen as morally distinct from loss of civilians: all human life is precious
    - some terrorist groups are delusional (AQ) but others are nationalist (zionist Irgun)
    - Is there really a difference?
    - Terrorist movements have rarely, if ever, succeeded militarily
    - Terrorism is the tool of the weak, used by disaffected groups or minorities to oppose the rule and oppression of an established and militarily superior power
    - Because of little or no military force, terrorists resort to “hit and run” attacks
    - In Northern Ireland the terrorists sought to wear down the voting majority and weaken the democracy
    - In autocratic Egypt they sought to disrupt national economies
    - In the democratic west, terrorism is a handmaiden of democracy: every man has the power, so every man is a target
    - We will have enough on our hands as it is in dealing with the “wretched of the earth” in the coming century:
    given the widening gap between rich and poor, we can expect many more terrorist movements based on pure frustration and psychosis
  • put down the psychotic movements
  • but use tactics and prepare to negotiate with nationalist or ethnic movements that have genuine political movements behind them.

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    3. The Origins of the New Terrorism, Matthew J. Morgan, Parameters, Spring 2004
    • Is there really a “new terrorism”?
    • What cultural, political, and technological factors have influenced its development?
    Notes by Jeremy Lewis, Fall 2007
  • Introduction & lit. survey:
  • Terrorist attacks have been reduced to fewer but more deadly attacks since the high point (600 per yr) in the 1980s.
  • Religious terrorism as fourth wave of vulnerability for US following NBC terrorism concern in 1990s.
  • Scholars warned of catastrophic brand of terrorism before 2001.
  • Hoffman: definition of terrorism must include political change as goal.
  • Cultural factors
  • religious terrorism groups have grown rapidly since 1980s, most significant type now
  • religious groups are their own constituency
  • personality driven religion cults also more dangerous
  • Aum Shinrikyo included as a cult, if not necessarily religious
  • Christian violence in US has been different: focussed on racial minorities & "immoral" targets
  • Political and organizational factors
  • poverty as a cause? lacks evidence of linkage to terrorism
  • failed states do enable terrorism to grow
  • globalization has weakened nation states, grown NGOs including AQ
  • Technological factors
  • WMD in collapse of Soviet union might be adopted by T groups -- but these are technically conservative
  • more probable is bio and chemical agents, but these are difficult to use
  • T groups need internet, but may disrupt it
  • Tech has increased destruction: prior to 2001, most deadly killed only 380.
  • Conclusions
  • T has changed quantitatively and qualitatively
  • caused by combination of the above factors



    Matthew j. Morgan, “The Origins of the New Terrorism”
    Notes by Chanley Rainey, Fall 2007

    • 9/11 attack was most destructive in world history
    • Exemplifies a “New Form of terrorism focused on millennial visions of apocalypse and mass casualties”
    o Since 1988, there have been less attacks but higher casualties
    o Religious fundamentalism has replaced political motivations
    o More unrestrained in methods; more apocalyptic in perspective & methods
    o Lack of concern about alienating ppl. from support
    o Seeking destruction & chaos as ends in themselves
    • David Rapoport calls the new, religiously motivated terrorism thee “4th wave” in the evolution of terrorism
    o Preceded by terrorism focused on
    The breakup of empires
    And anti-Westernism
    • Paul Wilkinson cites various factors that have contributed to the change
    o Saturation of the media w/ images of terrorist atrocity has raised the bar for achieving the spotlight
    o Terrorists have realized that civilian targets are less risky
    o There are less politically minded & more vengeful & radical
    Cultural Factors
    • Religiously motivated terrorist groups have been on rise
    •  They increasingly view their acts as a righteous and necessary advancement of their religious cause, possibly as killing-as-healing, “the necessity of total social destruction as part of a process of ultimate purification”
    • While secular terrorist’s seek to appeal to sympathizers, religious terrorists are often their own constituency & many involve a cult of personality (where one leader dominates)
    • Violence is viewed as divinely directed & justified by scripture; preoccupation with WMDs
    • Islamic radicals, numerous cults, and American right-wing Christians are all major players in this new terrorism & share 3 elements:
    o they see their position as one of defense (of their basic identity & dignity)
    o losing is unthinkable
    o struggle is in deadlock and cannot be won in real time or terms
    • Religious cults are dangerous b/c of their narrow constituency, personality-driven nature, foundation on violence of coercion, fascinated & obsessed with apocalyptic eschatology
    • Right-wing Christian terrorists view themselves in a perpetual battle b/w good & evil that must culminate in the apocalypse predicted in Revelations; have recently expanded into attempted bombings and poisoning municipal water supplies
    Political & Organizational Factors
    • Gross inequalities in economic resources & standards of living
    • Govt. collapse in failed states
    • Intrusion of Western values & institutions into the Islamic world thru the process of free-market globalization
    • Deterioration of power of the state
    o Terrorists cannot depend on states for money, arms, protection, etc
    o They have fewer restraints tho & still considerable support
    • Globalization has made targets more exposed and increased communications have facilitated terrorist organization and recruitment
    • Organizationally, terrorists have evolved to horizontal, less command-driven groups that allow flexibility and make them hard to track
    Technological Factors
    • Availability of very powerful weapons of mass destruction: nuclear, biological, chemical, and radiological
    • Recent advances in communications and info. technology provide both assistance (in org. & recruitment) and an opportunity for targeting b/c industrialized societies are so dependent on their info. infrastructures
    o More interested in “systemic disruption” b/c total destruction would inhibit their own communications

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    UNIT 2. Tactics of Terrorism
    • tactics of T seem universal and consistent, unlike ideologies of T
    • 2/3 attacks use bombs
    • kidnapping, hostages, hijacking, arson, also used
    • increasingly funded by organized crime and drug trafficking
    • Potential shift from mass bombings to targeted assassination
    • JI has been targetting ambassadors, businesspeople and local leaders
    • difficult to caracterize motivations of T groups

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    4. Terrorists’ New Tactic: Assassination, Donald Greenless and John McBeth, Far Eastern Economic Review, June 17, 2004

    • Has there been a shift in tactics from mass killings to targeted assassinations?
    • How is Jemaah Islamiah targeting Western ambassadors, businessmen, and Indonesian public figures in a new wave of violence?
    Notes by Erin Baker, Fall 2007
    • Jamaah Islamiah (JI), an extremist group located in Indonesia and connected with Al Qaeda, is shifting their tactic from large scale bombings to assassinations of important individuals.
    • Top of the target list – American, British, and Australian Ambassadors, as well as senior officials in the embassies
    • The most likely form of attack would be the shooting of targeted officials on their way to or from work. ( One official has already been killed en route to church)
    • JI has not given up on the idea of large scale bombings but are looking at other was of hitting foreign interests, particularly economic, without causing heavy Muslim casualties.
    • You get just as much news coverage out of taking out an ambassador as a bombing and its easier to do
    • Right now elections in Indonesia are sapping the political will to deal with terrorism
    • In March a memo appeared on an Al Qaeda website urging attacks on “soft targets and individuals.”
    • A lack of political will and Indonesia’s weak legal system present an uphill struggle to track JI and 5 or 6 other homegrown militant groups
    • The militancy and ideology that attract people to the organization must be changed
    • It is a huge mistake to see Indonesian militancy as monolithic.

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    5. Paying for Terror, David E. Kaplan, U.S. News & World Report, December 5, 2005

    • How are terrorist organizations exploring new ways to fund operations?
    • How do organized crime and drug trafficking provide the financing that terrorists seek?
    • How are scams, identity theft, and extortion becoming sources of revenue?
    Notes by Jeremy Lewis, Fall 2007
    • indicates connections to organized crime
      • Mumbai blasts by muslim extremists in 1993 soon led to discovery of arsenal and led to gangster, Dawood Ibrahim
      • funded by drug trafficking (eg Madrid bombers) and fraud (Euro) and human trafficking (from North Africa)
      • recruiting from muslims in prisons in France, Spain & Morocco
    • AQ iself wary of drug trade
      • Afghan warlords and Taliban do trade in opium & herion, huge growth plus addition of marijuana
      • bribery at roadblocks is routine, cargoes not inspected (Kirgiz ministry truck investigation)
      • Iran fights drug trade but families already involved
    • DEA is active in Afghan, going after kingpins -- but stovepiped, not sharing with intell agencies
    • crime informants likely because mercenary, unlike silent AQ prisoners
    • Joint ops may succeed against org crime & T:
      • Hunt for Pablo Escobar in eaerly 1990s
      • UK London Metropolitan Police monitor crime for T connections
    David Kaplan, “Paying for Terror”
    notes by Jonathan Lyons, Fall, 2007
    • Begins by describing terror attacks against the Bombay Stock Exchange, International airport and major hotels in Bombay, India by Muslim extremists. Killing 257 and injuring hundreds, the attacks were designed to cause great civilian casualties.
    • The attacks occurred on March 12th, 1993 and were a precursor to the terror attacks on 9/11. The attacks focused on a nation’s financial center, much like the attack on the WTC.
    • Indian police later recovered a huge arsenal of weapons: 4 tons of explosives, 1,100 detonators, 500 grenades, 63 assault rifles and thousands of rounds of ammunition. Eventually the trail led to “South Asia’s Al Capone”, Dawood Ibrahim. Ibrahim, an infamous mob boss and leader of “D Company”, now finds shelter in Pakistan, India’s rival.
    • The Treasury Department has labeled Ibrahim as a “global terrorist” for masterminding the attacks on Bombay, as well as lending smuggling routes to Al Qaeda. He is currently under investigation by the FBI and DEA for his international criminal network
    • “Transnational crime is converging with the terrorist world”-Robert Charles, former State Department head of narcotics.  The world is witnessing drug rings and mafia groups in South America and the Balkans commit political assassinations and bomb police prosecutors, relying on shifting networks and secret cells much like terrorist organizations
    • Some U.S. intelligence analysts, though, see the joining as more a marriage of convenience than an international alliance. Motives of terrorist groups are of politics and religion, while purely criminal organizations seek only profit.  All of these people agree, though, that terrorist organizations are growing more bold, stealing pages out of the organized crime “playbook” to fund their operations
    • Terrorist gang involved in bombing Madrid’s trains in 2004 acquired resources through trafficking hashish and ecstasy, their ringleader Jamal Ahmidan was the brother of an infamous Moroccan hash trafficker. Al Qaeda’s Southeast Asia affiliate, Jemaah Islamiyah financed their 2002 Bali bombings with jewelry store robberies that netted over 5 pounds in gold, etc.
    • Despite this, counterterrorism officials belive Bin Laden and Al Qaeda have been wary of using drug trafficking to earn assets in fear of possible detection, instead relying on a flow of money from sympathetic mosques and other supporters.

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    6. The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism, Scott Atran, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2006
    • What is the difficulty of categorizing the motivations of suicide bombers?
    • Which motivations predominate: religious zeal, foreign occupation, or perceived cultural domination?
    • What suggestions are there for defusing the threat?

    • Notes by Chrys Lake, Fall 2007

    I. Who typically performs suicide bombings?
      a. Islamist groups claiming religious motivation (jihad)
      b. Political revolutionaries
      c. Middle-class, secularly well-educated, ‘born-again’ Islamists
      d. Oppressed and restless youth
    II. Why do individuals and groups perform suicide bombings?
      a. Foreign Occupation
      b. Political Objections
      c. Religious Tension
      d. Atran argues that statistical data can never ‘demonstrate cause’, claiming that it is impossible to gage why exactly people commit suicide bombings.
        i. Atran attacks Pape’s Dying to Win, which attempt to the give reason and logic to suicide bombings:
        1. Problem with Sampling: Too many groups, loyalty, different objectives.
        2. Too Narrow, Too Broad:
          a. Too Narrow- suicide bombings appear to be just as effective as conventional warfare.
          b. Too Broad- to large of a category to gain reliable ‘conclusions about motivations and goals’.
        3. Problem in ‘rating the success’ of suicide bombings: Pape judges the effect of suicide bombings on what result they have on the sponsoring groups’ expulsion of threat, instead, Atran suggest it be judged on how much it broadens a groups political base and support.
        4. Pape is misguided as to origins of suicide bombers: Atran argues that you cannot categorize suicide bombers by region or religious affiliation.
      e. Atran points out that the jihad movement is not sovereign only to the Middle East—Ex: London, Madrid, Indonesia, Australia.
    III. Atran wants to clear a few things up for us about Al Qaeda:
      a. Al Qaeda is not behind every suicide bombing, only in 1998 did AQ become a predominant group on the world stage.
      b. Al Qaeda usually just performs as an inspirer for small groups and cells.
      c. Atran calls Bush ‘hopelessly tendentious and willfully blind’ by saying that Al Qaeda ‘hates freedom, rejects tolerance, and despises dissent’, he claims that they have always justified their reasoning, and only hated America.
    IV.  The Moral Argument for Suicide Bombing:
      • Radical Muslims have a different perception of why they commit suicide bombings. Take for example: Americans would think it was a crime to perform suicide bombings. A radical Muslim would think it was a crime for American women to wear a short sleeve shirt on holy soil. Therefore, by killing that American, they are purifying and cleansing their homeland.
      • The main problem is through communication—Atran claims that we (Americans v. Muslims) have such a large gap of understanding that we could never possibly justify or reason a suicide bombing.
      • Jihadism, in itself, is a motivator, not just political strength or expulsion of foreign threats.
    V. So, What do you do?
      a. It is impossible to profile a terrorist, but monitoring websites and other technological communications means is our best bet.
      b. Target organizations that sponsor and fund cells and groups.
      c. Break apart sympathy for martyrs.
      d. Stop trying to make it simple, its not, but do continue to try to understand and interpret why people commit suicide bombings.

    Unit 3: State-Sponsored Terrorism
      7. Iran: Confronting Terrorism, Gary Sick, The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2003
    • How has  Iran sponsored terrorist organizations?
    • How can terrorism be a mechanism for spreading Khomeini-style revolutions throughout the world?
    • What policy recommendations can address this problem?

    • Notes By Brady Lamborne, Fall 2007

    • Iran’s Historical Motivations for Terrorism has occurred in a number of terrorist acts and their past reputation for supporting terrorism, the incendiary rhetoric of its ultraconservative clerical leaders, and its almost total lack of national security issues have created an environment in which is to be believed the worst.
    • During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), Iranian gunboats which are small speedboats with hand-held grenade launchers and other weapons attacked commercial shipping in Iran. Iran also seeded the waters of the shipping lanes with floating mines which came in the form of maritime terrorism.
    • These attacks, which threatened the region’s shipping lanes, eventually led to direct military clashes between the United States and Iran in the Gulf.
    • This indicated Iran’s willingness to use unconventional, even terrorist, methods to pursue a political and military strategy, even if that meant confronting the United States.
    • The death of Khomeini brought a new generation of revolutionaries to the top leadership positions like Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.
    • A major terrorist event during the last few years of the Rafsanjani presidency was the June 1996 bombing of the U.S. military barracks at Al-Khobar in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia that killed 19 U.S. servicemen and wounded 372.
    • Although they offered a major offshore development contract to a U.S. company they will still be considered as a nation who supports and promotes terrorism.



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      8. The Growing Syrian Missile Threat: Syria after Lebanon, Lee Kass, Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2005

    • Does Syria harbor ambitions to develop its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) capability?
    • How strong are Syria’s links with terrorist organizations?
    • Will it become more difficult to confront Syrian sponsorship of international terrorism?

    • 9. Terrorists Don’t Need States, Fareed Zakaria, Newsweek, April 5, 2004
    • Do some terrorist groups not need to rely on state-sponsors for their survival?
    • Rather than being sponsored by states, can some terrorist groups actually sponsor states in which they reside?



      10. Guerrilla Nation, Thor Halvorssen, The Weekly Standard, January 26, 2005

    • Is there evidence of a potential connection between Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)?
    • In spite of Chavez’s consistent denials, does he continue to support the FARC?

    • Notes by Rick Riley, Fall 2007

      1. Chavez's sympathy with terror
      -diplomatic ties W/ Iran, Libya
      -Proclaimed "brother hood w/ Saddam Hussein
      -spoke kindly of Taliban
      -Support for FARC

      2. Who is FARC?- Fuerzas Armada Revolucionarias de Colombia.
      -has fought against dem. gov. of Col. for over 40 yrs
      -Armed wing of Colombian commy party
      -get money from cocaine trade
      -has turned Colombia into one of world's most dangerous countries

      3. Venezuelan connections to FARC under Chavez.
      -FARC leaders welcomed and treated as heads of state in VZ
      -Colombian Gov't has confiscated 400 guns from FARC fighters with Venezuelan insignia
      -evedence of communication btw FARC and Chavez and other VZ Military Commanders
      -Chavez Denies ties w/ FARC, but evidence suggests otherwise

      4. Halvorssen Says:
      -U.S. too tame with VZ and Chavez
      -Changing our relations with VZ long overdue.

      UNIT 4. International Terrorism

      11. Extremist Groups in Egypt, Jeffrey A. Nedoroscik, Terrorism and Political Violence, Summer 2002

    • How did the deserts of Egypt give rise to the first Islamic militant organizations?
    • Can the Egyptian experience provide important insights into contemporary international terrorism?



      12. Colombia and the United States: From Counternarcotics to Counterterrorism, Arlene B. Tickner, Current History, February 2003

    • Are Colombia’s terrorist network and its drug trade impossible to separate?
    • Have U.S. policies to address these issues been defined primarily in military terms and “…taken precedence over equally significant political, economic, and social considerations.”

    • Notes by Brandon Shrout, Fall 2007

      The Pervasive Effects of the “War on Drugs”
      -Since 1980s Washington’s counternarcotics policies have been based on repressive, prohibitionist, and hard-line language and on strategies that have changed very little over the past few decades.

      -American-guided efforts to combat illegal drugs have produced negative consequences for Colombia.
      -Strengthening of democracy, the defense of human rights, the reduction of poverty, and the preservation of the environment have all become secondary to fighting the drug trade.
      -The war on drugs has failed to reduce the production, trafficking, and consumption of illegal substances.
      -Aerial spraying has killed legal crops in many southern Colombian communities, also caused health problems.

      • After the end of the cold war drugs replaced communism as the primary threat to national security in the United States.

      September 11 and Counterterrorism
      -On 10/10/2001 Francis Taylor, the State Department’s coordinator for terrorism, said, the “most dangerous international terrorist group based in this hemisphere is the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia.” (FARC)
      -FARC accused of using a demilitarized zone to cultivate coca, holding kidnapping victims, and meeting with members of the IRA, allegedly to receive training in urban military tactics.

      Militarization and Human Rights
      -One of the most severe challenges in Colombia for the U.S. is human rights.
      -Colombian security forces were responsible for 3% of human rights violations in 2001 which is a large improvement from over 54% in 1993.  They continue to commit abuses (extrajudicial killings, collaborating with paramilitary forces).
      -Leahy Amendment of September 1996—wanted to suspend military assistance to those units implicated in human rights violations, unless the U.S. secretary of state certified that the responsible military officers were being brought to trial.

      The Wrong Profile
      -The actions taken by the U.S. might have made a grave situation worse.
      -National security defined in military terms, has been placed in front of equally important political, economic, and social issues.  In its current format the U.S. approach is ill-equipped to assist Colombia in addressing the root of the problem.

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      13. Root Causes of Chechen Terror, Alon Ben-Meir, The World & I, December 2004

    • Does the Chechen struggle show that misguided policy can lead to tragic consequences?
    • While Russia continues to ignore the root causes of Chechen terrorism, is there any chance of diminishing or eliminating it?

    • Notes by Maegan McCollum, Fall 2007

         * In the past three years terrorist organizations have swelled.
         * The U.S. and Russia’s refusal to acknowledge that the use of force
           to combat terrorism is not going to reduce or eliminate the problem of terrorism.
         * For anything to be accomplished, more attention must focused on
           the social, economic, political, and ethnic/religious conflicts
           and grievances that create the environment for and the motivation to commit acts of terror
         * Terrorism in Russia is a result of the Chechens’ struggle against Russia
         * During the Soviet Union the Chechens suffered greatly from
           discrimination, cruelty, and abuse.
         * With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen
           Parliament seized the opportunity and declared the republic’s
           independence. The tensions between Russia and the Chechen’s escalated into warfare in 1994.
         * For the past 10 years, Russian military and security forces have continued to persecute the Chechens.
         * The terrorist attacks that recently killed innocent children at a
           Beslan school and elsewhere in Russia are acts that must be condemned.
         * Chechen militants are influenced by Wahabism, a strict form of
           Sunni Islam, and are aided by Islamist terrorist groups, especially Al Qaeda
         * However, this should not make war against Chechnya a war against terrorism.
         * Given the historical reality and present situation, the only
           realistic solution is for Chechnya to remain part of the Russian
           Federation yet be permitted to run its own internal affairs as it sees fit.
         * For Putin to equate negotiating with the Chechen rebels to
           negotiating with al-Qaeda is both dangerous and dangerously misleading.
         * Only a negotiated settlement with the Chechens will stop the
           vicious cycle and prevent this war from spreading into other republics in the region.

      14. End of Terrorism?, Meredith Moore, Harvard International Review, Summer 2005

    • Despite Basque’s calls for peace, will inaction on both sides of the conflict lead to a continuation of violence in Spain?

    • Notes By Todd L. Adams, Fall 2007


         * Nationalistic hard-line party of the Basque region of northern
           Spain and southwest France.
         * Have been fighting for the autonomy of Spain’s Basque provinces
         * Was banned by Spain’s conservative People’s Party in 2003

      Eitskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)

         * Commonly assumed to be the military wing of Batasuna.
         *  From 1968-2003, have been responsible for deaths of over 800 people.
         * No deaths attributed to ETA since 2003.

      Path to Peace

         * 2004- Spanish and French counter terrorism units combined forces
           and intelligence to arrest over 400 Batasuna and ETA leaders.
         * August 2004- several jailed Batasuna leaders encouraged ETA to use
           diplomacy instead of violence as a means to accomplish its goals
           since terrorism “was not serving any purpose.”
         * October 2004- top ETA leader Mikel Albizu Iriarte arrested. He and
           other top officials began to urge the party to end its violent      tactics.
         * November 2004- Batasuna released a proposal to negotiate peace
           with the Spanish government that involved demilitarization of ETA.
         * February 2005- Batasuna sends an open letter to French President
           Jacques Chirac asking him to speak with ETA to negotiate peace,
           but was left unanswered.

      Obstacles to Peace

         * Spain’s ruling People’s Party, in power until March 2004, refused
           negotiations with ETA because its use of violence.
         * People’s Party did not completely ignore Basque complaints. It
           wanted to give the Basque Provinces some autonomy, but kept them
           tied to Spain. This was not enough for the Basque people, and the
           problem remained unsolved.
         * People’s Party ousted in 2004 elections following the 3/11 Madrid
           train bombings in which the ETA was falsely accused of committing.
         * Socialist Party elected, and they too refused to negotiate with ETA.
         * Socialist party remains skeptical that the ETA will not hold its
           end of demilitarization because younger members of ETA are less
           likely to adopt peace policies.


         * Disagreement between ETA and the Socialist Spanish government will
           impede the path to a lasting peace.
         * Spanish Government’s opinion is that there will be conflict until
           the ETA formally renounces violence as a means to achieve its goals.
         * Poll of Basque inhabitants in February 2005- majority say they
           prefer that the Spanish government begin talks with ETA only after
           ETA formally renounces violence.
         * The only apparent path to peace remains with the ETA; until it
           pledges to disarm, the Spanish government will continue to doubt
           ETA’s wish for peace and Batasuna’s claim it will end ETA’s
           terrorist ways.
         * Lack of action on both sides unfortunately may lead to continued

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      Unit 5: Terrorism in America

      15. Homegrown Terror, Michael Reynolds, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November/December 2004

    • Preoccupied with the pursuit of Islamic terrorists, has the U.S. government downplayed the threat posed by extremists and right-wing groups within the United States?
    • Are there examples of a continuing homegrown threat?



      16. Speaking for the Animals, or the Terrorists?, Scott Smallwood, The Chronicle of Higher Education, August 5, 2005

    • Does a Professor's vocal support for a terrorist organization, the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and its objectives actually constitute terrorism?
    • Can the ALF be compared to the abolitionist movement?

    • Notes by Chrys Lake, Fall 2007

      - Dr. Steven Best, assistant professor of philosophy at the University of Texas El Paso, has been labeled and targeted as a terrorist—for the Animal Liberation Front.
      - In December of 2004 Dr. Best co-founded the North American Animal Liberation Press Office, which answers questions and helps disseminate information about actions by the Animal Liberation Front, including activities such as attacks on University laboratories, factory farms, and pharmaceutical companies. Best has long since been associated with the ALF and PETA and their recruiting efforts, but denies membership to either.
      - Can the Animal Liberation Front be considered a terrorist group? According to Mr. Martosoko of the Center for Consumer Freedom claims that Dr. Best is a spokesman for terrorism who results to violent extremes (ALF) to get his point across. Dr. Best claims, however, that there is no way to consider the ALF a terrorist group—it is neither established nor organized, you can’t just join it, nor do they hire spokespeople and press.
      - As a result, Dr. Best has lost his chairman position at the University of Texas El Paso, has been called before Congress, and has faced much scrutiny among the press and his peers.
      - Dr. Best compares the animal liberation and rights movement to that of the abolitionist movement, claiming that soon people will look back and honor the leaders of this movement, that it will only take time for people to realize that animals should not be treated in the manner they currently are.

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      17. Women and Organized Racial Terrorism in the United States, Kathleen M. Blee, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2005

      How do the perception of the enemy and the structure of the group affect the involvement of women in terrorist groups in America?
      Are women are more likely to participate in loosely structured groups whose direct targets are minorities instead of the government?

      Notes by Erin Baker, Fall 2007

      *3 required components of terrorism: acts or threats of violence, the communication of fear to an audience beyond the immediate victim, and political, economic, or religious aims.
      *Racial Terrorism- terrorism undertaken by members or an organized White supremacist or Pro-Aryan Group against racial minorities to advance racial agendas
      *Two dimensions of Terrorism: The nature of the intended ultimate target, and how violence is organized.
      *Over time shifting roles and methods allowed room for Women to enter racial terrorist groups such as the KKK.
      *When the Klan was beginning to exert its power politically the new women's vote became incredibly important.
      *Women were used to spread rumors about Jewish merchants to aid in economic devastation
      * By having women and Children attend lynchings they turned into community events and made them all the more scary.
      *Today women are seen as key because of their centrality to family life and lesser likelihood  to become police  informants.
      *Women have lower involvement in racial terrorism targeted at the state and somewhat greater involvement in violence directed and racial minority groups, relative to men.
      *two forms of organization: strategic vs. narrative
      *Strategic organizational structures put emphasis on a strict hierarchical  system.
      *Women's involvement in Strategic racial terrorism is generally indirect
      *Narrative racial terrorism is more spontaneous that strategic
      *Women are directly involved in Narrative racial terrorism though in lesser numbers than men.

      18. José Padilla and the War on Rights, Jenny S. Martinez, The Virginia Quarterly Review, Fall 2004
    • What legal hurdles have José Padilla’s lawyers faced while trying to ensure due process for an American citizen detained as an “enemy combatant”?
    • How does Padilla’s case illustrate how civil liberties have been sacrificed in the name of security?

    • Outline by Chanley Rainey, Fall `07

      • Ms. Martinez is an international human right’s lawyer who 1st got involved by filing an amicus brief for a group of retired federal judges who supported Padilla and later joined Padilla’s legal counsel
      • Jose Padilla was initially arrested by civil law enforcement officers as a material witness
      • He was taken to NY & appointed counsel- local defense attorney Donna Newman
      • 2 days b4 hearing, Ms. Newman got a call from US Attorney’s Office

      o President had declared Padilla an “enemy combatant”
      o Padilla had been taken to a military brig in SC
      o Newman showed up on scheduled date to file a petition for a writ of habeas corpus; judge assigned co counsel Andrew Patel
      • Govt’s Case
      o “enemy combatants” (ECs) have no constitutional rights; thus, Padilla has no right to question this designation
      o Padilla could not speak with counsel b/c that “would break – probably irreparably – the sense of dependency and trust that the interrogators are attempting to create.”
      o He & all other EC’s could be held until end of “war on terror”
      o court’s only role is to make sure there is “some evidence” supporting govt’s decision
      o court can’t challenge the affidavit given as “some evidence” & also lacks authority to bring Padilla into court
      • District Court decided Padilla was entitled to hearing & access to counsel
      • Govt. appealed to Federal Circuit Court in NY
      • Federal Court ordered mandatory release of Padilla within 30 days
      o Govt. has no authority to hold a US citizen seized in US as an EC
      o Challenged govt’s interpretation of Ex Parte Quirin
      • Ex Parte Quirin
      o WWII Supreme Court decision upholding govt’s authority to put Nazi soldiers (who the court called “enemy combatants”) on trial in military commissions rather than civil courts
      o BUT Congressional legislation had specifically authorized the use of military commission trials for admitted German soldiers
      • Govt. appealed to Supreme Court & finally allowed Padilla to meet with his counsel, tho not acknowledging his right to do so
      o Strict military rules limited discussion & time
      o Attorneys not allowed to divulge info to court or rest of counsel or anyone
      • Padilla confesses, Justice Dpmt holds press conference…
      • Supreme Court dismissed Rumsfeld v Padilla
      o Couldn’t be files from NY with Rumsfeld as defendant, even tho the Presidential order had put Padilla in his custody
      o Case would have to be re-filed from SC with the commander of the military brig as defendant
      • Case has been refilled from SC
      • Related decision, Hamdi v Rumsfeld
      o Justice Thomas agreed with US govt
      o 4 found no authority to hold a US citizen as an EC unless Congress acted to suspend writs of habeas corpus
      ? Scalia (most conservative) & Stevens (most liberal)
      ? Souter & Ginsberg agreed but based on a statute passed in 1970s to prevent recurrence of Japanese internment camps:  “no citizen shall be imprisoned or otherwise detained by the US except pursuant to an Act of Congress”
      o 4 found right to hold ppl who are “part of or supporting forces hostile to the US or coalition partners” BUT, someone claiming to be uninvolved is entitled to counsel and a court hearing
      • Comparison:  Spain, Israel, and Britain’s laws concerning issue of “detention”
      o They have actual legislation authorizing detention
      o Provide for access to counsel & judicial review of detention within hours or days
      o Most provide for time limits on detention (with extensions available)
      o Those that don’t have time limits require regular judicial review of detention

      “Implicit in the term ‘national defense’ is the notion of defending those values and ideals which set this Nation apart…. It would indeed be ironic if, in the name of national defense, we would sanction the subversion of one of those liberties – the freedom of association – which makes the defense of the Nation worthwhile.” Pg 107

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      UNIT 6. Terrorism and the Media
      [notes needed]

      19. Terrorism as Breaking News: Attack on America, Brigitte L. Nacos, Political Science Quarterly, Spring 2003

    • How did media coverage of the events of and after September 11th and “breaking news production” serve precisely the attackers’ intent?
    • What are the roots of resentment toward the United States from the Arab and Islamic world
    • How are these roots portrayed in the news media?



      20. A Violent Episode in the Virtual World, John Gray, New Statesman, July 18, 2005

    • How can media portrayals of terrorist acts shape reality?
    • Through the media, how does each terrorist incident become a problem of the global community: a problem which must be solved.

    • see notes in later edition pages, 2008-09 (reading renumbered 23)

      21. Terror’s Server, David Talbot, Technology Review, February 2005

    • How has the Internet become an integral part of terrorist organizations’ communications, recruitment, and funding strategies?
    • To what extent could tighter security and regulation of webpage content aid the war on terror?

    • Notes by Brady Lamborne, Fall 2007

    • The funding of terrorism in the world today is being done through the internet.
      • Law enforcement authorities say evidence collected from Samudra’s laptop computer shows he tried to finance the Bali bombing by committing acts of fraud over the internet.
      • Online fraud which in 2003 cost credit card companies and banks $1.2 billion in the United States alone in these terrorists’ arsenals.
      • One of the ways they are financing themselves is through cyber-crime.
      • Hundreds of jihadist websites are used for propaganda and fund-raising purposes and are as easily accessible as the mainstream websites of major news organizations.
    • Dealing with these challenges will require new technology and, some say, stronger self-regulation by the online industry.
      • The industry has a fair amount of potential input but the difficult question in this process will be who decides what is acceptable content and on what basis.
    • There is some work already going on in the broader battle against terrorist use of the Internet.
      • Research labs are developing new algorithms aimed at making it easier for investigators to comb through e-mails and chat-room dialogue to uncover criminal plots.
      • Anti-spam efforts are providing new tools for authenticating e-mail senders using cryptography and other methods, which will help in eliminating terror.
    • This will help push in an era in which the distribution of online content is more tightly controlled and tracked, for better or worse.



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      22. High Anxiety, Lori Robertson, American Journalism Review, April 2003

    • When the government issues an “orange alert,” how do the American news media pick up the story?
    • Do the media cause the public to panic unnecessarily?



      UNIT 7. Terrorism and Religion

      23. Holy Orders: Religious Opposition to Modern States, Mark Juergensmeyer, Harvard International Review, Winter 2004

    • Is religious terrorism a tool of the powerless in their struggle against the secular state?
    • How does religion provide the moral basis for the individual’s struggle for identity in the increasingly complex modern world?



      notes by James Corby, Fall 2007

      - Religious Opposition to Modern States
       - Terrorists stem from every religion.
       - Attacks such as 9/11 (Islam), the Oklahoma City Bombing (Christianity), Tokyo Subway attacks (Buddhism) and others.
       - Terrorists target governments not other religions.
      - Why Religion?
       - Religion gives moral justification to those who carry out the attacks.
       - Religion provides an image of spiritual struggle, or simply “good vs. evil”
      - Religious Wars
       - Religious opposition is much harder to defeat than worldly opposition because it is a “divine battle with heavenly rewards” so goals aren’t compromised.  This is different from worldly opposition that will compromise goals for various reasons.
      - Cause of Religious Opposition
       - Globalization and Modernization are the main factors of religious opposition.

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      24. The Madrassa Scapegoat, Peter Bergen and Swati Pandey, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2006

    • Have Western countries falsely attributed the training of terrorists to Islamic schools?
    • Of the five worst anti-Western terrorist attacks in the past fifteen years, while many of the terrorists involved were highly educated, how many had attended religious schools?



      Outline by Chanley Rainey, Fall ‘07

      • MADRASSA is an Arabic word meaning “school,” whether that school is

       o A boarding school
      o Purely religious
      o General curriculum
      o Obviously, it’s often misused
      DATA – for studies, “madrassa” is defined as “a school providing a secondary-level education in Islamic religious subjects
      • Osama bin Laden
      o Did not attend a madrassa while growing up
      o European-influenced, relatively progressive Al Thagr High School
      o Economics at King Abdul Aziz University
      • 1993 WTC bombing, 11 men led by Ramzi Yousef & Blind Sheik
      o Best educated group, all w/ some college
      o 2 graduated from Western colleges
      o Blind Sheik had Masters, working on dissertation
      o Yousef had degree in engineering from Wales
      • 1998 Africa Embassy Bombings, 16-member Al Qaeda cell
      o 1 born in West (Liverpool) & indoctrinated by audio tapes about Afghan jihad
      o 7 had some college, 2 graduated Western
      • 9/11 Attacks, 15 muscles and 4 pilot-leaders + secondary planners
      o All 4 pilots had some college in foreign universities, 3 in Germany
      o leader Atta had doctorate; all secondary planners had some college in Europe or US
      • 2002 Bali Nightclubs Bombing, 22 perpetrators
      o 5, particularly key planners, had college degrees; 1 of leaders had doctorate from college in UK
      o 9 went to a pesantan, a kind of madrassa particular to Indonesia (plural pesantren)
      ? Usually boarding schools; unlike most Indonesian madrassas
      ? pesantran operate outside state education system & focus on religion w/ practical courses in farming or small industry
      ? provide many recruits for Jemmah Islamiya
      • 2005 London Bombings, 4 Br citizens w/ suspected al Qaeda ties
      o 3 had some college education:  1 had vocational degree in business studies, 1 studied child care, 1 studied sports science
      1. TERRORISM has historically been THE TOOL OF THE BOURGEOIS, this is still the trend
      o “not the work or impoverished, undereducated madrassa graduates, but rather of relatively prosperous university graduates with technical degrees that were often attained in the West” and more helpful in designing attacks
      o When madrassa students are involved, they are mostly muscle joining better-educated orchestrators
      o Strong link b/w technical education & terrorism – not available at most madrassas (58% of those w/ college had scientific or technical degrees)
      o None of the masterminds of the 5 attacks studied went to a madrassa; 27% of all the terrorists attended a Western school
      3. Cracking down on madrassas should not be a US security tactic
      o Closing them, especially in rural areas, would only damage educational system and increase regional tensions
      o They don’t provide the requisite education for a key terrorist and only 1 terrorist in study managed transition from madrassa to university

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      UNIT 8. Women and Terrorism
      [notes needed]

      25. Cross-Regional Trends in Female Terrorism, Karla J. Cunningham, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2003

    • What are the roles of female terrorists in various regions around the world?
    • What motivates women to engage in political violence?
    • What is the future of women in international terrorism?



      26. Explosive Baggage: Female Palestinian Suicide Bombers and the Rhetoric of Emotion, Terri Toles Patkin, Women and Language, Fall 2004
    • What is the role of women in contemporary religious violence?
    • Focusing on women in Palestine, amid the culture of martyrdom and the lack of opportunity, what motivates women to become suicide bombers?

    • Top of Page

      27. Girls as “Weapons of Terror” in Northern Uganda and Sierra Leonean Rebel Fighting Forces, Susan McKay, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2005

    • What is the role of young girls in rebel movements in Sierra Leone and Northern Uganda.
    • The participation of young women in terrorism is often acknowledged, but are their experiences understood?

    • Notes by Erin Baker, Fall 2007

      *Terrorism in civil wars is directed against people and also occurs indirectly by targeting their community infrastructures and human relief workers
      *Historically women have been involved with terrorism, if not visibly
      *Girl's presence in fighting forces have received inadequate exposure
      *Female participation withing fighting forces is key because they carry supportive roles as well as acting as fighters

      *Girls are typically characterizes as victims, although research indicates that girls in these forces, willing or otherwise, participate in terrorist acts.
      *A paradox exists whereby victims of terrorist violence subsequently become perpetrators of similar violence
      *Differentiating between victim and perpetrator can be difficult due to the change that occurs over time in impressionable children
      *When Status is gained feelings of pride may outweigh feelings of victimization

      *A consequence of not seeing girls as "actors" is that they are oftentimes not included in disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs.
      *Community members often react with fear and hostility to girls coming back from a rebel fighting force.
      *Stigmatization or sexual abuse may lead to further defiance of traditional gender roles, like resistance to marriage, which promotes further ostracizing.

      * A key Strategy to Working with returning girls is to enlist the leadership of women elders
      *Health care must be a high priority.

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      UNIT 9. Government Response

      28. Port Security Is Still a House of Cards, Stephen E. Flynn, Far Eastern Economic Review, January/February 2006

    • Have efforts to secure domestic ports and monitor foreign points of origin been successful?
    • What are the three important weaknesses of the maritime security apparatus?
    • What policy recommendations could be designed to address these issues?

    • Notes by Aarendy Gomez, Fall 2009
      - After the September 11 attacks, transport systems have become targets for terrorist organizations.
      - “Its only a matter of time before terrorist breach the superficial security measures in place to protect ports, ships and millions of intermodal containers that link global producers to consumers.
      - There is both a public safety imperative and a powerful economic case for advancing trade security.
      - Since the 20th century, cargo containers have been adopted in order to transport goods from one place to another without the hassle of items being individually moved from the dock to the factory.
      - “A terrorist event involving the intermodal transportation system could lead to unprecedented disruption of the global trade system.”
      - The U.S Coast Guard work through International Maritime Organization in order to establish new international standards for improving security practices on vessels and within ports.
      - In order for a ship to arrive in the US, the coast guard required for the ships to give a 96 hour notice of their arrival, the description of their cargos, and the passenger’s list.
      - The US Customs and Border Protection Agency mandated that ocean carriers must electronically file cargo manifests outlining the content of containers 24 hours in advance of their being loaded overseas.
      - There are radiation sensors in large ports that would detect radioactive material within containers.
      - The flaw of radiation sensors is that it does not have the capability to detect nuclear weapons or a lightly shielded dirty bomb.
      - “If terrorists obtained a dirty bomb and put it in a box lined with lead, it’s unlikely radiation sensors would detect the bomb’s low level of radioactivity.”
      - The U.S government’s container-security policy resembles a ‘house of cards.’
      - By maintaining a record of each container’s contents, the port are able to provide government authorities with a forensic tool that can aid a investigation should a container with a weapon of mass destruction still slip though.

      Notes by Maegan McCollum, Fall 2007

      * The Sept. 11 attacks, and the Madrid and London attacks show that transport systems have become favored targets for terrorists.
      * This puts ports, ships, and the millions of intermodal containers that link global producers to consumers at risk.

      * As enterprises’ dependence on the intermodal transportation system rises, they become extremely vulnerable to the consequences of a disruption in the system.
      * Multiple port closures in the U.S. and elsewhere would quickly throw this system into chaos. Resulting in idle factories and bare shelves for retailers.
      * Several U.S. agencies have pursued initiatives to manage this risk.
      * The U.S. Coast Guard chose to take a primarily multilateral approach by working through the London-based International Maritime Organization to establish new international standards for improving security practices on vessels and within ports, known as the International Ship and Port Facility Code (ISPS). The CG also requires that ships destined for the U.S. provide a notice of their arrival a minimum of 96 hours in advance and include a description of their cargoes as well as a crew and passenger list.
      * The new U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency (CBP) mandated that ocean carriers must electronically file cargo manifests outlining the contents of U.S. bound containers 24 hours in advance of their being loaded overseas.
      * The U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense have developed their own programs aimed at the potential threat of weapons of mass destruction¾focusing on developing the means to detect nuclear weapons.
      * Each agency has pursued its signature program with little regard for other initiatives, making the approach a slow process. There are also vast disparities in the resources that the agencies have been given. Furthermore, there are some questionable assumptions about the nature of the terrorist threat that underline these programs.
      * Prior to 9/11, customs inspectors were to identify “known shippers: that had an established track record of engaging in legitimate commercial activity. Post 9/11, the CBP expanded that model by extracting a commitment from shippers to follow the supply chain security practices outlined in C-TPAT (Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism).
      * The problem with this is that it is designed to fight conventional crime.
      * An attack involving a weapon of mass destruction differs in 3 important ways.
      1. It is likely to be a one-time operation (most private company security measures are not designed to prevent single-event infractions).
      2. Terrorists will likely target a legitimate company with a well-known brand name precisely because they can count on these shipments entering the U.S. with negligible or no inspection.
      3. This terrorist threat is unique in terms of the severity of the economic disruption. (If a weapon of mass destruction arrives, then every container will be assumed to be potentially high-risk and must be examined, freezing the world intermodal system.
      * The Association of Southeast Asian Nations should work with the U.S. and the European Union in authorizing third parties to conduct validation audits. A multilateral auditing organization made up of experienced inspectors should be created to periodically audit the third party

      * Asean and the EU should also endorse a pilot project being sponsored by the Container Terminal Operators Association of Hong Kong, in which every container that arrives passes through a scanning machine, as well as a radiation portal to record the levels of radioactivity within the container.

      * The system needs to become a “trust but verify” system.

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      29. Are We Ready Yet?, Christopher Conte, Outlook, October 2005

    • What efforts have been made by various public health agencies to prepare local communities for bioterrorism?
    • Are preparations for bioterrorism drawing resources away from more prevalent health crises?

    • Notes by Aarendy Gomez, Fall 2009
      - In case of bioterrorist attacks, states have developed a wide range of emergency plans, conducted numerous exercises, and modernize their information and communications system.
      - Patrick Libby, an executive director of the National Associations of County and City Health Officials, asks whether we are where we need to be.
      - With biological issues coming up, health departments have been involved in emergency planning.
      - Public health agencies have tools that help them diagnose problems in the field. There are tools that can quickly recognize outbreaks of anthrax, smallpox, plague or Ricin toxin.
      - Officials believe that the county is not ready for bioterrorism due to the fact that there is a lack of trained people who are able to handle this.
      - There was a tremendous gap between the health departments and the communities they serve.
      - “Lack of health insurance, unfamiliarity with disease and what to do about them, and the fact that health care systems turn poor people away- those are our greatest causes of vulnerability to bioterrorism..”

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      30. The Double-Edged Effect in South Asia, V. R.Raghavan, The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2004

    • Can ongoing Indian and Pakistani efforts reduce the threat of terrorism in South Asia?


      UNIT 10. Future Threats

      31. The Changing Face of Al Qaeda and the Global War on Terrorism, Bruce Hoffman, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2004

    • Has there been a shift in terrorist operations and organizations?
    • Has al-Qaeda become more “nimble, flexible, and adaptive”?
    • Can the U.S. government do the same?



      notes by Rick Riley, 2007

      I. Al qaeda before 9/11

      -Used Afghanistan as large base against Northern Alliance
      -Unitary Organization and slow, lumbering bureaucracy
      -had clear center of gravity and leadership
      -vulnerable to conventional warfare
      II. Al Qaeda's post 9/11 transformation
      -Has become more of an idea than an organization
      -less unitary and more flexible
      -Franchise leadership
      -less need for money
      -more emphasis on guerrilla warfare
      -not restrained by large bureaucracy
      III. What the U.S. must do according to Hoffman
      -must avoid having pre-9/11 sense of complacency
      -Must ensure that new Iraq succeeds
      -Need better communication and better image with Muslim World
      -need new effort to make peace between Israel and Palestine
      -must ensure that alliances remain strong
      -must make clear policy in combating terrorism.

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      32. The Terrorism to Come, Walter Laqueur, Policy Review, August/September 2004
    • Examining the world of terrorism, can we answer the age old question: why us?
    • notes by Brandon Shrout (Fall 2007)

      • 30 years ago when the terrorism debate began it was believed that terrorism was a left-wing revolutionary movement caused by oppression and exploitation.
      • Conclusion:  find a political and social solution, remedy the underlying evil—no oppression no terrorism

      • The local element

      -Links between terrorism and nationalistic, ethnic, religious, and tribal conflict, is easier to identify.
      -If there is a debate over certain territory, or there is a demand for autonomy, then compromises can be made.
      -Al Qaeda was founded not because of territorial dispute or oppression but because of a religious movement (jihad).
      • The focus on Islamist terrorism
      -Making predictions about the future of terrorism is more risky than political predictions in general.
      -We are not dealing with mass movements but small groups of people.
      -Currently Islamist terrorism monopolizes our attention.
      -Over the past decade more Muslims were killed in terrorist attacks than infidels.
      -Where are terrorist attacks most likely to occur?
       -Where terrorists are strong and they believe the enemy to be weak—the
       Middle East, Central Asia, and Pakistan.
      • Battlefield Europe
      -Europe is probably the most vulnerable battlefield.
      -West European governments are often criticized for not doing enough to integrate Muslims into their societies.
      -Cultural and social integration is not what they are looking for, but rather the preservation of their religious and ethnic identity and their way of life.
      • Enduring asymmetry
      -There will be no final victory against terrorism unless human nature undergoes a basic change and conflict disappears entirely.
      -The key role in asymmetric warfare should be played by intelligence and security services that may need a military arm.
      -Terrorism does not accept laws and rules, and governments are bound by them.
      • Love or respect?
      -Large and powerful countries have always been feared, resented, and envied.
      -Powerful countries have been respected and feared but not loved because they are threatening simply due to their existence.
      -Bin Laden’s declarations prior to 9/11 show that he felt attacking America was a small risk because he felt certain that the U.S. lacked the will and the capability to strike back.
      • Response in proportion to threat
      -Many terrorists have been detained in Europe and America, but only a few have been put on trial and convicted. (Inadmissible evidence or authorities not revealing the sources of their information)
      -Activists argue that terrorism is not the danger, instead it is the war against terrorism.
      -The real issue is not past attacks but potential attacks.
      -Small groups now have the potential to cause large scale destruction.

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