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PSC 209: World Politics, Chapter Notes

Rourke, John T. & Mark A. Boyer, International Politics on the World Stage,

Students' notes from Full Editions | See also Brief, eighth edition

revised 4 Aug. 2015 by Jeremy Lewis

Note: PSC 209: World Politics, uses the Brief edition of the full book formerly used by PSC 303.  The brief edition combines some chapters and shortens all. PSC 303 adopted a more upper level text. The Full 10/e condensed 3 levels of analysis chapters into one, and reduced the chapter numbers of all subsequent chapters. Note new Full 11/e renumbered chapters again.  Below is a mixture of notes from Full 10/e and 11/e.

Ch. 1: [Brief 1] Thinking and Caring About World Politics
Ch. 2: [Brief 2] The Evolution of World Politics [Brief edn., 2015]
Ch. 3: [Brief 3] Levels of Analysis and Foreign Policy
Ch. 4: [Brief 4] Nationalism, the Traditional Orientation
Ch. 5: [Brief 5] Globalization: The Alternative Orientation
Ch. 6: [Brief 6] Power, Statecraft and the National State: The Traditional Structure
Ch. 7: [Brief 7] Intergovernmental Organizations: Alternative Governance [Brief edn., 2015]
[Brief Ch. 8]: International Law and Human Rights
Ch. 9. International Law and Morality: An Alternative Approach [Brief edn., 2015]
Ch. 10: National Security: The Traditional Road
[Brief 9, Pursuing Security]
Ch.11: International Security Alternative
Ch. 12: [Brief 10] National Economic Competition: The Traditional Road
Ch. 13: [Brief 11] International Economic Cooperation: The Alternative Road [Brief edn., 2015]
Ch. 14 Preserving Human Rights and Dignity  [Not in Brief]
Ch. 15: Preserving Human Rights
Ch. 16 [Brief 12]: Preserving & Enhancing the Biosphere

Full edition, Ch. 1 Thinking and Caring About World Politics
Notes by Margaret Enfinger, 2000

It's possible to consider realism and idealism from 3 perspectives: descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive. The descriptive approach is concerned with "what is." The predictive approach tries to estimate "what will be." The prescriptive approach asks the normative question, "What ought to be?"

At root, realists are pessimists about human nature; idealists are optimists about human nature. Realists believe that political struggle among humans is probably inevitable because people have an inherent dark side. Thomas Hobbes (a realist) believed that humans possess an inherent urge to dominate.

Neorealists focus on the anarchic nature of a world system based on competition among sovereign states, rather that on human nature, as the factor that shapes world politics. The international system is based on sovereign actors which answer to no higher authority. Because there's no authoritative, impartial method of settling disputes, states often resort to force to achieve their security interests. Each state must rely on its own resources to survive and flourish. They doubt that there is any escape from the anarchistic world. They argue that the most powerful states in the system create and shape international institutions [for the purpose of promoting cooperation] so they can maintain their world power.

Idealists are prone to believe that humans and their countries are capable of achieving more cooperative, less conflictive relations. Contemporary idealists not only believe that in the past people joined together in civil societies to better their existence; they are confident that now and in the future people can join together to build a cooperative and peaceful global society.

Neoidealists (neoliberals) ascribe much of world conflict to the same cause as neorealists: the anarchic world system based on competition among sovereign states. They believe that the best path to cooperation is through building effective international organizations.

Realists believe that struggles between states to secure their frequently conflicting national interests are the main action on the world stage. Power determines which country prevails. Politics is aimed at increasing power, keeping power, or demonstrating power. The national interests is whatever enhances or preserves the state's security, its influence, and its military and economic power. They argue that the highest moral duty of the state is to do good for its citizens.

Idealists argue that foreign policy should be formulated according to cooperative and ethical standards. The wisest course, they say, is for Americans and others to redefine their interests to take into account the inextricable ties between the future of their country and the global pattern of human development.

Realists advocate a relatively pragmatic approach to world politics- realpolitik. One principle is to secure your own country's interests first and worry about the welfare of other countries second. Countries should practice balance-of-power politics. The best way to maintain the peace is to be powerful. A fourth realist tenet is that you should neither waste power on peripheral goals nor pursue goals that you do not have the power to achieve.

Idealists are divided in terms of how far cooperation can and should go. Classic idealists believe that states can learn to cooperate without surrendering their independence.

Neoidealists believe that countries will have to surrender some of their sovereignty to international organizations to promote greater cooperation and to enforce good behavior.

Suspicion, tension, and rivalry, rather than cooperation, have been the most common traits of what we call international peace. Realpolitik is still usually the order of the day.

International relations scholars have 3 subsidiary goals in mind: description (it should focus on patterns; the goal is to relate them to a pattern of other events); prediction, and prescription (beyond objective studies and come to normative conclusions and prescribe policy).

Political scientists gather evidence by 3 basic research methodologies: logic (pure logical analysis; employ deductive logic), traditional observation (historical analysis), and quantitative analysis (measurable phenomena; use mathematical techniques).

Political scientists divide the study into levels of analysis (the level of the factors that affect international politics). System-level analysis is a worldview. It theorized that the world's social-economic-political structure and pattern of interaction (the international system) strongly influence the politics of states and other actors. The state-level analysis is concerned with the characteristics of an individual country and the impact of those traits on the country's behavior. It theorized that countries are the key international actors. The individual-level analysis focuses on people. In the end people make policy, therefore understanding how people decide policy will leader to understanding how international politics operates.

The ties between national and international affairs are so close; intermestic is a new term symbolizing the merger of international and domestic concerns.

Gross domestic product is a measure of all goods and services produced within a country.

Full edition, Ch. 2: The Evolution of World Politics [Contents only]

Global political evolution: a quick summary

The Ancient Greeks' polis and empire
The Roman republic and empire
The expansion of the city state to broader territory
The Holy Roman Empire
The Catholic Church
The Reformation
The Treaty of Westphalia, 1648

Full edition, Chapter 3: Levels of Analysis
Amanda Spiegel, 2005

There are three levels of analysis:

1. the nature of the world (system-level analysis)
2. How countries make foreign policy (state-level analysis) and
3. People as individuals (individual-level analysis)
-the system refers to the international system involving the social, economic, and political setting and examining these and how they influence countries and other “actors”
-Three Different Types of Actors:
  • States/Countries,
  • Intergovernmental Organizations (WTO), and
  • transnational organizations (that include NGOs, multinational corporations, and terrorist groups)
  • -argues that countries are compelled to take certain actions by the realities of the world in which they exist; factors that determine the nature of a given system: structural characteristics, power relationships, economic patters, and norms of behavior
    --Structural Characteristics of a System:
    1. The organization of authority (currently horizontal based on state sovereignty)
    2. Sovereign states are the “actors” on the international system, but intergovernmental organizations (IGO) and transnationals are rising.
    3. The frequency, scope, and level of interaction of a system. (currently the system is becoming more interdependent
    --Power Relationships in a System:
    Types of Power Poles:
    1. a country/empire,
    2. an alliance,
    3. a global IGO (ex: UN),
    4. regional IGO (ex: EU)
    -the number of poles in a power system is significant, unipolar, bipolar, tripolar, multipolar systems; (bipolar systems are different/less stable than multipolar); the concentration of power between poles being equal or unequal
    -changes in power system result from shifts in the sources of power or when conditions with major countries affect their assets
    --Economic Patterns in a System: affect operations, such as distribution of natural resources
    --Norms of Behavior in a System: are used to predict situations within a system, although norms are currently being challenged

    -emphasizes the characteristics of states, what states do, and how they make foreign policy choices; the foreign policy process is important because of the influences and activities within a country to make it choose a particular foreign policy
    -Variables that Affect the Foreign Policy Process: the type of government, situation, and policy.

    1. Type of Government: authoritarian vs. democratic
    2. Type of Situation: crisis vs. non-crisis
    3. Type of Policy: relating to issues
    -A states internal factors influence their international actions: the political culture, and making political leaders, bureaucratic organizations, etc…

    -studies international politics by examining the role of human as “actors on the world stage”
    -Three Perspectives of Individual-Level Analysis:

    1. To examine human nature (cognitive, psychological, emotional and biological factors that influence decision making)
    2. To study how people act in organizations (organizational-behavior, groupthink) <>
    3. To examine actions of specific people (based on perceptions, decisions, personality, physical and mental health, ego, ambitions, history, personal experiences all as factors)
    -Perceptions help understand how leaders react to the world based on a group/individuals belief system, values, and the information available.

    Ch. 4:

    Full edition, Rourke Ch. 5 Globalization and Transnationalism
    Sierra R. Turner, Spring 2005
    Globalization is a multifaceted concept that represents the increasing integration of economics, communications, and culture across national boundaries.
    It is in large part the product of technological changes that have rapidly expanded the speed with which merchandise, money, people, information, and ideas all move over long distances.
    In the same way, globalization is dependent on the technology that permits us to transmit images, data, the written word, and sound easily and rapidly on a global basis.
    Transnationalism both preceded and has been spurred by globalization.
    The two terms are closely linked, but while globalization is a process and a state of affairs, Transnationalism is attitudinal and includes a range of political identities and interactions that connect humans across nations and national boundaries.

    The Impact of Globalized Communications:

    1. One impact has been to facilitate the formation and growth of a multitude of transnational groups espousing causes of nearly every imaginable type. These groups are flourishing and having an important impact on policy at the international level through the UN and other international organizations and on the national level through the pressure brought on governments by the groups’ national chapters.
    2. Another impact of the communications revolution is that it enables people to seek alternative information and opinions from what is normally available to them.
    3. A further effect of global communications is that they undermine authoritarian governments. As such, the rapid mass communications that are taken for granted in the industrialized democracies are still greeted with suspicion by authoritarian governments.
    Economic interchange across borders is bringing the world together in many ways. Remember these two important points when considering Economic Globalization:
    1. First, the international economy affects each of us through our jobs, what we pay for goods and services we consume, and many other economic aspects of our lives.
    2. Second, as the economically intertwined as we are today, it is likely that the connections will grown even more complex and comprehensive.
    What is important to see here is that economic interchange has a transnational impact that extends beyond dollars and cents. Many analysts believe that economic interchange is bringing more people together transnationally through familiarity with one another and one another’s products.

    To an important degree, the early development of diverse languages, practices, and the other aspects of the world’s diverse cultures was a product of the isolation of groups of other people from one another. It is not surprising then that a degree of cultural amalgamation had occurred as transportation and communication have improved, thereby bringing people of various societies into ever more frequent contact.
    Language is one of the most important aspects of converging culture is English, which is becoming the common language of business, diplomacy, communications, and even culture.

    The interchange of popular consumer goods is another major factoring narrowing cultural gaps. American movies are popular throughout much of the world. Hollywood is pervasive, earning 50% of its revenue abroad—a 20% jump in 20 years….

    Transnationalism springs from two sources. Globalization is one. Human thought is the second source of transnationalism.

    Transnational thought in Western Europe culture can be traced to Stoicism, a philosophy that flourished in ancient Greece and Rome from 300 B.C. to A.D. 200. The Stoics saw themselves as part of humanity, not as members of one or another smaller political community.

    After Stoicism declined, the idea of transcending local political structure and power remained alive over the centuries. According to Thomas Paine, the transnational march would lead to free trade and to establishing an international congress to resolve differences among states. During the same era, the philosopher Immanuel Kant took the idea of international cooperation for peace even further. The thinking of nineteenth-century German communist philosophers such as Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx also contained a strong element of transnational thought.

    After existing on the periphery of political thought during the halcyon days of nationalism, transnational thought came increasingly to the force in the 20th century. Realism and liberalism are not the only theoretical approaches to international relations, and in recent decades several other ways of politics have gained standing among scholars and they include the following:

    1. Postmodernism- this theory holds that reality does not exist as such. Rather, reality is created by how we think and our discourse (writing, talking). As applied to world politics, postmodernism is the belief that we have become trapped by stale ways of conceiving of how we organize and conduct ourselves. Postmodernists wish, therefore, to “deconstruct” discourse.
    2. Constructivism- an approach to analysis based on the notion that our understanding of the world and our relationship to it is based on our individual norms, experiences, and other factors that shape our perceptions.
    3. Feminism- the theory of, and the struggle for equality for women.
    Ideas only become powerful when those who hold them begin to take action. This is what has increasingly taken place. There is good evidence of this change in the phenomenal growth in the number and activities of transnational organizations called nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).
     Definition- International organizations with private memberships.

    For all transnational change that has taken place, there is resistance to it. Nationalism remains a powerful, resilient force, and it still dominates people’s political identification.

    Full edition, Ch. 6, National States: The Traditional Structure
    by R. Walker Garrett, 2005
    State Defined: territorially defined political units that exercise ultimate internal authority and that recognize no legitimate external authority over themselves.

    Six Characteristics of most states: Sovereignty, Territory, Population, Diplomatic Recognition, Internal Organization, and Domestic Support.

    Purposes of the State: State of nature as individual groups forming governments under social contracts for the purpose of individual betterment through collective effort.

    Instrumental theory of Government: Governments are created as a means to advance society, existing for society, not the society for the government.

    Theories of Governance:
    Authoritarian Government: allows little or no participation in decision making by individuals and
    groups outside the upper reaches of the government.
                -General Authoritarian Theory, The Republic, Rule by a Few
                -Theocracy: Rule by spiritual leaders
                -Monarchism: Rule by King
                -Communism: Economic theory, inequality of authority, Totalitarianism
                -Fascism: Totalitarianism, Relies on emotions, believes in inferior people, believes in a dictator, individual expression is through the people, subjugating inferior countries, economic activity to support the corporatist state, state as a living thing.

    Democratic Government: allows much broader and more meaningful participation.

    Democracy and World Politics
    Standards of Democracy

    Individualism: Individual rights and liberties are paramount
    Communitarianism: the welfare of the collective must be valued over any individual's benefit.
    -Procedural Democracy: Stresses process
    -Substantive Democracy: association with democracy as a substantive product with equality.

                -Range of participation from equal opportunity to participation distributed by factors such as race, ethnicity, and gender irrelevant to democratic processes and outcomes.

    Promoting Global Democracy
    -Democracy and Economic Development
    -Attitudes about Democracy

    Democracy and Security
                -Democracy and Domestic Security
                -Democracy and International Security
                -Democratic Peace Theory: the spread of democracy to all countries would eliminate war.

    National and Other Interests
    National Interest as a Standard of Conduct
                -There is no such thing as an objective national interest
                -Using national interest as a basis of policy incorrectly assumes that there is a common interest.
                -National interest is inherently selfish and inevitably leads to conflict and inequity.
              -The way that national interest is applied frequently involves double standards.
                -National interest is often shortsighted

    Alternatives to National Interest
                -Global interest-global citizens, counter-productiveness of national interest
                -Individual interests-personal welfare, your nation's interests, countries' interest,
                Your world's interest.a

    The State: The Indictment
    States are Obsolete
                -Providing physical safety
                -Providing economic prosperity
                -Providing for the general welfare
    States are destructive

    The State: The Defense
                -Nationalism has proven resilient, and its political vehicle, the state, still has many resources at its disposal
                -States may be able to adjust to the new realities by learning to cooperate and live in peace with other countries
                -States are arguably being strengthened as increasingly complex domestic and international systems create new demands for services.
                -Sovereignty has always been a relative, not an absolute, principle, and a dynamic, rather than static, concept
                -It is yet to be proven that international governmental organizations (IGOs) provide an effective alternative to the state.

    The State: The Verdict

    While the nature of the state is changing in its characteristics, those characteristics still remain important in the ever more open state of society where people move freely in groups of nations such as the European Union. Loyalties to nations tend to mean more than the specific records of countries in this current age.

    [Brief Ch. 8]: International Law and Human Rights
    Full edition, Ch. 9, International Law and Morality: An Alternative Approach
    By Lisa Lee, 2005
    Legal systems are one thing that restrains the power-based pursuit of self-interest in a domestic system. Morality is a second thing that restrains the role of power in domestic system. Here, we discuss what is "right" not just what is legal. Surely, there is no domestic system in which everyone acts morally. Yet the sense of morality and justice that citizens in stable domestic systems have does influence their behavior. Then, it’s theoretically possible to use the same standards to control the unrestrained pursuit of interests in the international system.
    Fundamentals of International Law and Morality
    The Primitive Nature of International Law
    1. As a primitive law system, the international system does not have a formal rule-making (legislative) process. Instead, codes of behavior are derived from custom or from explicit agreements among actors.
    2. There is little or no established authority to judge or punish violations of law. Instead they rely on negotiation or mediation to resolve disputes and on self-help.
    The Practice of International Law
    As one scholar notes, "the reality as demonstrated through their behavior is that states do accept international law as law, even more significant, is the vast majority of instances they obey it" (Joyner, 2000: 243).
    International law is most effective in governing the rapidly expanding range of transnational functional relations such as trade, diplomatic rules, and communications.
    International law is least effective when applied to "high-politics" issues such as national security relations between sovereign states.
    The Fundamentals of International Morality
    One scholar describes the balance between what is ideal and real, "contrary to what the skeptics assert, norms do indeed matter. But norms do not necessarily matter in the ways or often to the extent that their proponents have argued." (Legro, 1997:31)
    National leaders regularly discuss and sometimes even make decisions based on human rights.
    International Legal System
    The Philosophical Roots of Law
    External roots: those outside a society, provide one source of law
    a. Ideological/ theological school of law- this school of thought holds that law is derived from an overarching ideology or theology. Ex) Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas on the law of war.
    b. Naturalist school of law- this view holds that humans, by nature, have certain rights and obligations. Ex) John Locke, "all mankind, who will but consult it, that all being equal and independent [ in the state of nature], no one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, or possessions."
    Internal roots: those from within the society
    a. positivist school of law- advocates that law reflects society and the way people want that society to operate. Law is and ought to be the product of the codification or formalization of a society’s standards.
    How International Law Is Made
    According to the statute of the International Court of Justice, there are four sources of law: international treaties, international custom, the general principles of law, and judicial decisions and scholarly legal writing. We can add a fifth source: resolutions and other pronouncements of the UN General Assembly.
    1. International treaties- a primary advantage of treaties is that they codify the law. Agreements between states are binding according to the doctrine of pacta sunt servanda (treaties are to be served/ carried out)
    2. International custom- the old, and now supplanted, rule that territorial waters extend three miles from the shore grew from the distance a cannon could fire.
    3. General principle of law- the ancient Roman concept of jus gentium is the foundation of the general principles of law. By this standard, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) applies "the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations."
    4. Judicial decisions and scholarly writing- the rulings of the ICJ, other international tribunals, and even domestic courts when they apply international law, help shape the body of law that exists.
    5. International representative assemblies- UN members are bound by treaty to abide by some of the decisions of the General Assembly and Security Council, which makes these bodies quasi-legislative.
    Adherence to the Law
    Compliance with the Law
    1. Voluntary compliance- it occurs when the subjects obey the law because they accept its legitimacy.
    2. Coercion- it is the process of gaining compliance through threats of violence, imprisonment, economic sanction, or other punishment. Voluntary compliance is usually more important, but the mixture of that and coercion varies widely among societies.
    The overall degree of compliance to the law is lower in the international system than in most domestic systems. It has been based more on voluntary compliance than on coercion. Legitimacy is the key to international voluntary compliance.
    Adjudication of the Law
    Roht- Arriaza, 1999, said, "the international system of law is in the early stages of this developmental process and is just now developing the institutions and attitudes necessary for adjudication.
    International Courts
    a. Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)- was created in 1922 as part of the League of Nations.
    b. International Court of Justice (ICJ)- was created in 1946, which is associated with the UN, evolved from the PCIJ. World Court sits in The Hague, the Netherlands, and consists of 15 judges, who are elected to nine- year terms through a complex voting system in the UN.
    c. European Court of Justice (ECJ)- is notable for its authority to make decisions and to have those rulings followed in areas that were once clearly within the sovereign realm of states.

    Full edition, Ch. 10, National Security: The Traditional Road
    By Shane Stinemetz, Spring 2009
    • Max Weber said: "The decisive means for politics is violence. Anyone who fails to see this is a political infant."
    The reality is that countries continue to rely on themselves for protection and sometimes use threats and violence to further their interests.
    So, it is important to examine military power and to grasp the role that force plays in the conduct of international politics. This is the focus of this chapter.
    • National diplomacy is the process of trying to advance a country's national interest by applying power assets to attempt to persuade other countries to give way.
    • Power is the foundation of diplomacy in a conflictual world.
    National power is the sum of a country's assets that enhance its ability to get its way even when opposed by others with different interests and goals.
    • Measuring power is difficult. The efforts to do so have not been very successful, but they do help us see many of the complexities of analyzing the characteristics of power. These characteristics include the facts that power is dynamic, both objective and subjective, relative, situational, and multidimensional.
    The major elements of a country's power can be roughly categorized as those that constitute (1) its national core, (2) its national infrastructure, (3) its national economy, and (4) its military. The core and infrastructure form the basis for economic and military power.
    • The national core consists of a country's geography, its people, and its government.
    • The national infrastructure consists of a country's technological sophistication, its transportation system, and its information and communications capabilities.
    The functions of diplomacy include advancing the national interest through such methods as observing and reporting, negotiating, symbolically representing, intervening, and propagandizing.
    • Diplomacy does not occur in a vacuum. Instead it is set in the international system, in a specific diplomatic environment (hostile, adversarial, coalition, and mediation diplomacy), and in a domestic context.
    • Diplomacy is an ancient art, and some of the historical functions of diplomacy are still important. Diplomacy, however, has also changed dramatically during the past century. Seven characteristics describe the new approach to diplomacy: expanded geographic scope, multilateral diplomacy, parliamentary maneuvering, democratized diplomacy, open diplomacy, leader-to-leader communications through summit meetings, and public diplomacy.
    • These changes reflect the changes in the international system and in domestic political processes. Some of the changes have been beneficial, but others have had negative consequences. At the least, diplomacy has become more complex with the proliferation of actors and options. It has also become more vital, given the possible consequences should it fail.
    • Diplomacy is a communication process that has three main elements.
  • The first is negotiating through direct or indirect discussions between two or more countries.
  • The second is signaling.
  • The third is public diplomacy.
  • • Good diplomacy is an art, but it is not totally freestyle, and there are general rules that increase the chances for diplomatic success. Among the cautions are to be realistic, to be careful about what you say, to seek common ground, to try to understand the other side, to be patient, and to leave open avenues of retreat.
    • There are also a wide variety of approaches or options in diplomacy. Whether contacts should be direct or indirect, what level of contact they should involve, what rewards or coercion should be offered, how precise or vague messages should be, whether to communicate by message or deed, whether issues should be linked or dealt with separately, and the wisdom of maximizing or minimizing a dispute are all questions that require careful consideration.

    Full edition, International Security Alternative
    By D. Coleman Muzio, Spring 2009
    Limited Self-Defense through Arms Control

    [Brief 10]
    Full edition, National Economic Competition: The Traditional Road
    By Devon Beaty, Spring 2009
    Key terms
    - International Political Economy (IPE), which is how politics and economics intertwine.
    - Gross National Product (GNP), or gross national income (GNI), “is the value of all domestic and international economic activity by a country’s citizens and business.
    - Gross Domestic product (GDP), or gross domestic income (GDI), “is the value of all economic activity within a country by its own and foreign individuals and companies.
    - Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), which is a process that adjusts GNP and GDP to a value against the U.S. dollar.
    I. Theories of International Political Economy
    A. Economic Nationalism
    1. Belief that the state should us e economic strength to further national interests.
    2. International economy is a zero-sum game
    3. Rely on political economic strategies such as exploiting weaker countries.
    a. Colonialism
    b. Neocolonialism
    c. Economical developed countries (ECDs)
    d. Less developed Countries (LCDs)
    4. Favors economic incentives (foreign aid and favorable trade terms) and economic disincentives (sanctions)
    5. Favor protectionism (tariffs), and domestic economic support (such as tax breaks for companies that manufacture exports)
    6. Suspicious of free trade because of the belief that it weakens national sovereignty
    B. Economic Internationalism
    1. Associated with capitalism, laissez-faire, economic liberalism, and free trade.
    2. Belief that international economic relations should be cooperative
    a. Non-zero-sum game
    3. Oppose tariffs barriers, domestic subsidies, sanctions and other economic tools that distort free trade.
    4. Modify capitalist because they also favor using IGOs and national government
    C. Economic Structuralism
    1. World is divided between the have (ECDs) and have-nots (LCDS)
    a. Marxist theory
    1. Bourgeoisie leaders tricked the proletariat workers into exploiting other proletariat people through imperialism. International class struggle
    b. Dependency theory
    1. EDCs exploit LCDs for cheap primary goods, markets for their expensive manufactured goods, investment opportunity, and low-wage labor. (neocolonialism)
    c. World systems theory
    1. Evolution of Western capitalist system has distorted development, leaving large disparities between ECDs and LCDs.
    II. The World Economy: Globalization and Interdependence
    A. Trade
    1. Merchandise trade – tangible items subdivided into 2 main categories
    a. primary goods – raw materials
    b. manufactured goods
    2. Services trade –
    3. Expanding Trade
    a. In 1913 world trade was worth $20 billion. In 2004, world trade was worth 11.1trillion. Huge increase even accounting for inflation.
    4. Factors Promoting Expanded Trade
    a. Improved production technology
    b. Increase demand for resources
    c. Materialism
    d. Improved transportation
    e. Free trade philosophy
    B. International Investment
    1. Foreign Direct and Portfolio Investment
    a. Foreign direct investment (FDI) – buying a major stake in foreign companies or real estate.
    b. Foreign portfolio investment – buying stocks and bonds on a smaller scale that does not involve controlling companies or owning real estate.
    2. International Investment and Multinational Corporations
    a. Multinational corporations (MNCs) or transnational corporations (TNCs) are businesses that operate in more than one country.
    i. Walmart
    C. Monetary Relations
    1. Globalization of money
    a. Exchange rates
    2. Globalization of financial services
    a. Increased international lending by private banks
    3. International regulation of money
    a. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    b. European Union
    III. The World Economy: Diverse Circumstances
    A. North and South
    1. Least developed countries (LLCDs) are the poorest of the LCDs
    2. Newly industrialized countries (NICs) are countries in the South that have made strong progress in modernizing their economies
    B. North-South Patterns
    1. North-South Economic Patterns
    a. Trade difference – ECDs with 16% of population has 75% of all exported goods in 2004
    b. Investment difference
    i. Most of the 50 largest MNC are for U.S., Europe and Japan
    ii. 70% of FDI and FPI flow from on EDC to another
    2. North-South Societal Patterns
    a. 1.1 billion people live in extreme poverty, which is defined as $1 dollar a day (South)
    C. Evaluating the North-South Gap
    1. Uneven Patterns of Development
    a. Disparity between countries (China to sub-Saharan Africa)
    b. Disparity within countries (unequal distribution within a population)
    c. Negative by-products of development
    i. Rapid urbanization (weakened social order, unfulfilled employment, sanitary and housing needs.)
    ii. Environmental problems
    IV. National Economic Power
    A. Financial Position
    1. Center of any country’s economic power is their financial position
    2. Balance of payments – a measure that represents the entire flow of money into and out of a country’s economy
    3. Net trade (export minus imports)
    B. Natural Resources
    1. The greater a country’s self-sufficiency in vital natural resources, the greater its power.
    2. The greater a country’s reliance on foreign resource, the less its power.
    3. The greater a country’s surplus of natural resources, the greater its power
    C. Industrial Output
    1. Country’s power is limited unless it can turn its domestic resources into industrial goods.
    D. Agricultural Output
    1. Self-sufficiency
    2. Economic effort for country to feed itself
    V. National Economic Competition
    A. North-North Economic Competition
    1. Changes in the North’s Economic Climate
    a. North economy has slowed
    b. Increased competition to export to LCDs
    c. Outsourcing
    2. Changes in the North Political Climate
    a. End of Cold War
    b. American unilateralism
    B. North-South Economic Competition
    1. Increased economic competition
    2. The South’s Reform Agenda
    a. Trade reforms
    b. Monetary reforms
    c. Institutional reforms
    d. Economic modernizations
    e. Greater labor migration
    f. Elimination of economic coercion
    g. Economic aid
    h. Debt relief
    3. The North’s Response to the South’s Reform Agenda
    a. Southern countries internal issues
    b. Domestic resistance within the EDCs
    4. New Developments in North-South Competition
    a. Few LDCs competing with EDCs for markets, resources (China)
    b. Trade is a tension between China and North
    C. South-South Economic Competition
    1. LDCs compete with one another (exporting oil)
    2. Compete for investment capital from the North.
    VI. Applied Economic Nationalism
    A. Using Economic Means to Achieve Economic Ends
    1. Trade and Investment Barriers
    a. Tariff barriers
    b. Nontariff Barriers (NTBs)
    iii. Health and safety standards
    iv. Quotas
    v. Administrative Requirements
    c. Monetary Barriers
    d. Investment Barriers
    2. Trade and Investment Supports
    a. Subsidies
    b. Dumping
    c. Cartels
    B. Using Economic Means to Achieve Noneconomic Political Ends
    1. National Security Restrictions
    2. Economic Incentives – provide foreign aid, giving direct loans or credit, reducing tariffs etc.
    3. Economic Sanctions – cutting of aid, rising tariffs, undermine country’s currency, blockades.
    a. Dates back to 432 B.C. in city-state Athens
    b. Effectiveness of Sanction
    iii. Strong multilateral cooperation
    iv. Target is political unstable and/or economically weak
    v. Target country has substantial trade with targeting countries
    vi. Sanctions are put into effect quickly and decisively.
    vii. Targeting countries are not harmed economically
    c. Drawbacks
    ii. Harming economic interests other than the intended target
    iii. Tool used by EDCs to continue to dominate LDCs
    VII. Future of Economic Nationalist Policy
    A. Complete triumph of capitalism over Marxism and Socialism
    B. Steady movement to economic interdependency
    C. Inconclusive if the world will inevitable reach economic integration and cooperation.
    D. North perceive their wealth to be threatened and South believe globalization is a process that will enrich the North further

    [Not in Brief]
    Full edition, Ch. 14, Preserving Human Rights and Dignity
    By Rick Riley, Spring 2009
    Approaches to HR violations in other nations
    -Traditional:  Ignore or down play them
       Reasons: Sovereignty (don’t want to get in the affairs of others), Nationalism (care more for the needs of our countrymen than foreigners)

    The Alternative approach

     -This has gained more viability through T.V. and other media tech
     - WWII was a turning point- Horrors of Holocaust, Jap atrocities
     -UN Charter: “To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, and in the equal rights of men and women.
     -Talk has been far greater than action
     -Small steps and actions have been taken like never before.

    Proscriptive and Prescriptive HR’s

     -U.S. Bill of Rights is made up of proscriptive rights (things the Gov’t cant do to people)
     -includes protection from discrimination based on demographics
     -Negative Rights (Negate the legitimacy by Gov’t and others)
     -Things Gov’t is to provide in order for humans to live w/ dignity
     -Survival needs- right to avoid violence
     -“well being needs” to avoid misery- nutrition, H2O, Movment, sleep, SEX??, protection from, disease environmental impact.
     -“Identity needs” to avoid alienation-  self expression, reach potential, bonds w/ others, cultural heritage, etc.
     -Freedom needs- To avoid oppression-  opinion, assembly, have a voice in policy, choice of life style.
     -View on proscriptive and prescriptive rights varies based on nations view of the individual’s ability to create success in their lives.
     -U.S./Can- believe individual traits are reason for personal success, Mid East-Outside forces.  US/Can: only nations to have more believing individual traits are more important to success than outside forces.
    Universal and culture based rights
     -Source of rights
       -Universalists- rights come from God or other diety ( U.S. Declaration of Independence. , or nature of human conscience.
         -Universalist believe that these rights apply to all people in all nations
       - Relativists believe rights are relative to culture and that they change with time.
       - Relativists think that imposing a human rights standard is “cultural imperialism”
    Community and Individual Rights
    -Individualism- stresses rights of individual
    -Communitarianism-  good of the community is superior to good of individual
    HR problems
    -Civil Liberties rank 1-7 (1 least oppressive-7 most oppressive
    -55 nations fall below oppression score: 5
    HR progress
    -UN Universal Declaration of Rights 1948
    -supports universalist approach
    -not a treaty, doesn’t bind nations
    -Numerous treaties for HR’s
    -Treaties not always kept by signers, (Iraq)
    -Some see treaties as threat to sovereignty
    -marginal progress has been made through these efforts
    Women’s rights
    -Few women involved in Government process (esp Arab states)
    -Women as victims of warfare
    -women as victims in regular abuse
    -progress made in women’s rights, though disadvantaged politically
    Children’s Rights
    -abuse less noted than women
    -child soldiery, sex trade (sex tourist), child labor
    Group Rights
    -see ch. 4
    -International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination (1969)
    Rights of Indigenous People
    -350 million I people in the World
    -Seek less impact from civilization around them
    Refugee Rights
    -number of refugees dropped to 19mill. In ‘05
    -racial tension from natives