Political Science at Huntingdon College

Political Science | Courses | Dates | PSC 303: International Relations

James McCormick, American Foreign Policy and Process, 6e

Students' Outlines

compiled by Jeremy Lewis, Huntingdon College, revised 24 Feb. 2015

Chapter 1: America’s Traditions in Foreign Policy
Chapter 2: America’s Global Involvement and the Emergence of the Cold War
Chapter 3: After the Missile crises and the Vietnam War: Realism and Idealism in Foreign Policy
Chapter 4: The Return and End of the Cold War: The Reagan and Bush Administrations
Chapter 5: Foreign Policy after the Cold War and 9/11: The Clinton & Bush Admins
Chapter 6: Change and Continuity in Foreign Policy: The Obama Administration
Chapter 7: The President and The Making of Foreign Policy
Chapter 8: Congressional Prerogatives and the Making of Foreign Policy

Chapter 10: The military and Intelligence Bureaucracies



McCormick Chapter 1: America’s Traditions in Foreign Policy

Notes by Rhett Williams, spring 2015

 

       rational actor model-  the assumption that nations are self interested and seek to maximize their payoffs when making foreign policy decisions
       organizational process model-  focuses more on identifying the decision making routines of policy makers.  It sees foreign policy behavior less as the result of clear choices and more as a function of organizations following standing operating procedures

       bureaucratic politics model- pays some attention to values and beliefs.  Still, the primary explanatory focus here is on the competition among bureaucracies based on their relative power and influence

The United States: A new Democratic State

A Free Society

       US was founded on values different from the rest of the world

       Thomas Jefferson on the new American state “the solidarity republic of the world, the only monument of human rights… the sole depository of the sacred fire of freedom and self-government, from hence it is to be lighted up in other regions of the earth, if other regions shall ever become susceptible to its benign influence”

       deeply ideological, American “exceptionalism”

A Free Society

       conceived in liberty and equality

       the American Revolution  was fought in defiance of the very principles by which Europe was governed

       John Locke urged social liberalism

Equality Before the Law

       concern for individual, and personal freedoms

       equality for all was viewed not as equality of outcomes but as equality of opportunity

       De Tocqueville expressed amazement at the country’s social democracy

The Importance of Domestic Values

       American leaders didn’t see foreign policy as having primacy over domestic policy

       nor did they view foreign policy values and domestic policy values as distinct from one another with moral value guiding both

       isolationism was fueled by moral principle

The Role of Isolationism in American Foreign Policy

       historically isolationism best describes American foreign policy

       philosophical and practical issues led to isolation is direction of US foreign policy

       geographic separation from other nations

       weak army

       limited domestic unity

       settling and modernizing the new country was a primary focus

       2 Statements on Isolationism

       Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)

       emphasized good faith and justice in international relationships

       cautioned against forming close ties with other states

       “rule of conduct” to limit political connection

       The Monroe Doctrine (1823)

       set forth guidelines for US involvement in International affairs

       called to end European colonization of Latin America

       “2 spheres” concept in foreign policy

       Isolationist Tradition in the 19th Century

       no alliances made in 19th century

       political agreements forged to facilitate trade relations with an emphasis on economies

       Demonstrates commitment to principles set forth by Washington and Monroe Doctrines

       Clayton Bulwer Treaty

       neither Britain or the US would attempt exclusive control of Canal over the Isthmus at Panama

       or colonize or exercise dominion over central American countries

       Other Views: US no wholly isolationist

       US secured Louisiana purchase, annexed FL and incorporated TX

       Early presidents experienced in foreign policy

       Hans Morgenthau: national interest politics shaped US actions abroad

       US foreign policy “realistic” as leaders acted “in terms of power”

       McKinley’s presidency start of utopianism

       Renewed isolationist tradition in the early 20th century

       policy of non involvement guided US interactions with Europe

       moral principle justified intervention

       involvement in WWI

       Social, Economic, and Political actions

       national origins act of 1924

       restricted immigration form parts of Europe and prohibited Asian immigration

       enacted in response to fear of communism

       Smoot-Hawley tariff of 1930

       high tariff on foreign products sold in US

       isolate US from global economic influence

       Post WWI

       League of Nations

       US returned to isolationist foreign policy

       refuse to join LON

       failed to recognize soviet union

       attempted to outlaw international war via Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928

       Latin Involvement in 20th Century (Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

       expanded US involvement in the Western Hemisphere

       doctrine initially established to prevent intervention from abroad now used to justify US intervention closer to home

       Monroe-Doctrine in the present era

       Coup to overthrow guzman in Guatemala

       fear of communism

       Cuban Missile Crisis

       american blockade against Cuba after discovering soviet missiles

       Iran-Contra Affair (1984)

       fear of soviet involvement led to covert operation  to support  counterrevolutionary force

       Panama

       fears of the impact of Noriega regime on American interests

       Haiti

       proximity of Haiti to US justified decision

       Venezuela

       increasingly close ties with Cuba

       Anti-American rhetoric

Moral Principle and the Balance of Power

       balance of power concept is predicated on several key assumptions

       all states want to prevent large scale war and keep existence of major states in the international system

       all states are fundamentally motivated in their foreign policy by power considerations and national interests

       states are willing to join alliances to prevent dominance of other states

       there are few domestic political constraints preventing states from acting in the political arena








 

McCormick Chapter 2: America’s Global Involvement and the Emergence of the Cold War


Notes by Rhett Williams, spring 2015

 
       the US plunged into global affairs with WWII

       3 sets of factors that propelled the US into the directions of global power:

       the global  political and economic conditions of 1945-1947

       the decision of leading political figures within the US to abandon isolationism after WWII

       the rise of an ideological challenge from the Soviet Union

The Postwar World and American Involvement

The Global Vacuum: A challenge to American Isolationism

       the land, cities, and economies of most European nations had been devastated

       Germany, Italy, Britain were all trashed

       The US was healthy and prosperous, economy was booming

       the military was strong, and occupied much of Europe

American Leadership and Global Involvement

       leaders changed their worldview

       Roosevelt had decided that continued American involvement in global affairs was necessary after WWII

       Roosevelt’s plan (post WWI)

       defeat and disarm adversaries

       prevent future global economic depressions

       establish a global collective security organization

       allies must remain in peace to maintain global order

The Rise of the Soviet Challenge

       biggest factor that propelled America’s international involvement

       Truman’s plan wasn’t as in depth as Roosevelt’s foreign policy endeavors, but it was clear that American involvement in  the world was pivotal

       Stalin attacked capitalism stating it would only lead to wars, and  communism was  superior

       Churchill’s Response

       Iron Curtain Speech (1946)

       called for a relationship between US and Britain and other capitalist states, in order to directly attack Stalin

       Kennan’s Perception from Moscow

       George Kennan was an American diplomat in Moscow and wrote the “long telegram”

       argues that Stalin is a formidable rival in International politics

       and the new policy should be to contain this movement

       brings the rise to the Cold war

America’s Globalism: The Truman Doctrine and Beyond

       Greece and Turkey were under soviet pressure in 1946, and we decided to grant aid

       Truman Doctrine

       set out the conditions in Greece and Turkey that necessitated this assistance

       identified the global struggle that the US faced

       “help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national identity against aggressive movements that seek to impose on them totalitarian regimes”

       adopted containment strategy

       NATO is established to guarantee all nations will protect each other from soviet powers

       Marshall Plan

       called for Europeans to establish a plan to get back on their feet and we will provide assistance

       great outcomes, helped rebuild German and Japanese economies, and establish armies for self defense only

Korea: The First Major Test of Containment

       N. korea attacked S. korea, which engaged the soviet union, china, and the US

       after WWII, Korea was split and occupied by soviets in the north, and American assistance in the South

       soviet-inspired

       General MAcArthur led the American charge, and came a little too close to China, which urged some to join the North Koreans

       McArthur urged the president and government to give the signal to attack China and end the conflict completely

       by July, 1951 the fighting ceased, and brought many lessons for American policy makers for the future course of the Cold war

       defense budget increased after Korean war

       convinced the American people that the soviet expansion was real

       John Lewis Gaddis “the real commitment to contain communism everywhere originated in the events surrounding the korean war”

The Cold War Consensus

       communism is bad; capitalism is good

       stability is desirable, instability threatens US interest

       any area of the world that “goes socialist” or neutralist is a net loss to us and a victory for the soviets

       every country, particularly the poor ones will benefit from “american know how”

       the US must provide leadership because it has that responsibility

       violence is an unacceptable way to secure economic, social, and political justice- except  when vital US interests are at stake

       the government must never admit being wrong







 

McCormick Chapter 3: After the Missile crises and the Vietnam War: Realism and Idealism in Foreign Policy


Notes by Rhett Williams, spring 2015

 Cuban Missile Crisis

       closest Us and soviets came to nuclear confrontation

       soviets sent “offensive” missiles into Cuba

       JFK set up a plan to get rid of the missiles

       set up naval blockade to intercept further shipments

       it was a bitter standoff between US and Soviets

       the soviets agreed to remove missiles under UN supervision, if the US wouldn’t try and overthrow the Castro regime

       set up 3 lessons

       brought to home the scares of nuclear annihilation

       proved that rational policy making between the two was possible

       brought to reality the fact that the US and soviets were going to be major participants in international relations for a long time, and mutual accommodations were needed

Vietnam

       involved for 30 years starting at the end of WWII

       from Truman to Ford

       Ho chi minh communist regime

       JFK sent troops to prevent the fall of south vietnam

       Lyndon Johnson fully shifted the involvement from political to militaristic

       Congress approved the “Gulf of Tonkin resolution” which authorized the president to take all necessary measures  in Asia

       “operation rolling thunder” was an attempt to bring the vietcong to withdraw

       Nixon took office after LBJ and reduced the number of troops in vietnam

       cease fire was made in 1973, and called for American removal

       the end of the fighting actually came two years later during Ford’s administration with the fall of Saigon, and the final removal of all American personnel

Realism and Idealism as Foreign Policy Concepts

       realism

       the nation state is the primary actor in world politics

       interest, defined as power, is the primary motivating force for the actions of states

       the distribution or balance of power at any given time is the key concern of states

       state to state relations shape how one nations responds to another

       in this view, foreign policy is fraught with conflict, with each state seeking to further its interests and warily monitoring the activities of others

       idealism

       the nation state is only one among many participants in foreign policy

       values, rather than interests, are predominant in shaping foreign policy

       the distribution of power is only one of many important values, with social, economic, and military issues equally important

       overall global conditions, not relationships, between states, should dominate foreign policy thinking

       cooperative foreign policy process, with joint efforts to face problems

Realism and the Nixon Administration

       based on balance of power

       two important points

       bringing china back into the world community

       a more limited future role for the US in regional disputes

       Nixon Doctrine

       peace would require a partnership with the rest of the world

       peace would require strength to protect US national interests

       peace would require a willingness to negotiate with all states to resolve differences

Henry Kissinger and World Order

       Nixon's secretary of state

       believed there was a lack of legitimate international order

       the most important challenge confronting the US was “to develop some concept of order in a world which is bipolar militarily but multipolar politically”

       proposed an international order where stability was a fundamental goal, rather than absolute peace

       states that failed to respect the rights and interests of others would not go unpunished

       the soviets provided aid to Angola, and we reduced trade

       by having all states accept the legitimacy of the rights and interest of all other states, and by employing linkage, Kissinger believed that the United States could achieve global stability

Nixon-Kissinger Worldview in Operation

       Sino-soviet-american detente

       agreements and pacts between various states urging global cooperation

       combining force and diplomacy in instances like Cambodia

       in regards to human rights, they chose global order

       disregarded Chilean and Greek actions against human rights, but supported South Africa and the apartheid

Idealism and the Carter Administration

       run for presidency was based on making American foreign policy compatible with the basic goodness of the American people

       four major policy areas

       emphasis on domestic values in foreign policy

       improvement of relations with allies and resolution of regional conflicts

       a de-emphasis on the soviet union as the focus of US policy

       the promotion of global human rights

       importance of domestic values and moral principle to guide foreign affairs

       the US would try to produce change, rather than impose it

       believed there were limits to what the US could do in the world

Carter and Global Order: New States and Old Friends

       carried out policy of global cooperation

       a lot of attention towards Latin America, africa, and asia

       improve relations with western europe and japan

       almost shoved the soviets aside, making them feel unimportant

       required that states change their domestic human rights behavior if they wished amicable relations with the US

The Carter Worldview in Operation

       well received by the American public

       faced problems with clearly defining human rights

       promoted political, economic, and social rights of all individuals

       the administration seemed to lose some of its enthusiasm for human rights

       implementation was hard for the human rights campaign

       was the US really willing to cut all diplomatic ties with countries allegedly violation human rights

       Resolving Third World conflicts

       one of Carter’s biggest victories was returning the canal territory back to Panamanian control

       fostered peace between Israel and Jerusalem

       these accords would have broken the impasse that had blocked the middle east peace process (camp david) but the arabs rejected

Carter Realism in the Last Year

       by 1979, Carter’s foreign policy had become the subject of considerable criticism on the grounds that it was inconsistent, incoherent, and a failure

       in 1979, Iran seized 63 americans, and became Carter’s biggest foreign policy challenge

       took a realist approach, because he believed national self interest was now most important

       this change in approach came back to hurt Carter, as they were held for 444 days, and released a day after he left office

       soviet invasion of afghanistan

       adopted a series of responses to the soviet union over the invasion of afghanistan

       high-technology sales to the soviet union were halted

       soviet fishing privileges in American waters were restricted

       a grain embargo was imposed on the USSR

       we boycotted the 1980 summer olympics in Moscow







 

McCormick Chapter 4: The Return and End of the Cold War: The Reagan and Bush Administrations


Notes by Rhett Williams, spring 2015

 

Realism and the Reagan Administration

       different foreign policy course than predecessor, Carter

       “restoring American power”

       his goal was to be the revival of the national will to contain the Soviet union and the restoration of confidence among friends that America was determined to stop communism

       administration accused for having no coherent strategy for reaching its goals

       secretary of state, Alexander Haig gave these four pillars

       restoration of economic and military strength

       reinvigoration of alliances and friendships

       promotion of progress in the developing countries through peaceable changes

       a relationship with the soviet union characterized by restraint and reciprocity

The Reagan Worldview in Operation

       policy towards soviet union

       sought to rally other states against soviets

       attacked them as bankrupt and on the verge of collapse

       called for producing and stockpiling the neuron bomb, which killed people but didn’t harm property

       The US put intermediate missiles in Europe

       3rd world policy

       helped in El Salvador, against the communist movement fostered by the soviets

       also interceded against the communist nicaraguan government, quoting the Truman Doctrine, saying it was in protection to “support the free peoples”

       sent support to Lebanon when attacked by Israel

       in the 3rd world sense, Reagan tried to deal with regional issues, but became more involved in local issues, making it incoherent foreign policy initiative

Policy Change: Accommodation with the Soviet Union

       after elected for his second term, Reagan’s foreign policy stance changed, as he looked to adopt much more accommodation with the soviets, which set the stage for the end of the cold war

       a change in policy stance of the American leadership

       the emergence of new leadership and “new thinking” in the Soviet Union

       the domestic realities of the arms race between the superpowers

       new secretary of state, George Shultz changed the emphasis that policy must be more flexible than it had been in the past

       Gorbachev was elected in 1985, and brought new thinking to the communist party in Russia

       perestroika- restructuring of soviet society in an effort to improve the economy

       glasnost- a new openness and a movement toward greater democratization of the soviet system

       turned away from nuclear superiority, and turned to nuclear stability

       both the US and Soviet governments were spending enormous amounts on their militaries, and both presidents knew to keep the health of their economies they must cut back, and the arms race slowed

       “fireside summit”= Reagan and Gorbachev met for the first time, didn’t make any agreements, but shared outlooks on arms race, human rights, economies

       Intermediate Nuclear Force Treaty (INF)

       most important manifestation of progress in soviet-american relations in Reagan’s second term

       called for the eliminations of all intermediate-range nuclear weapons within three years and all medium-range nuclear weapons within eighteen months

Policy Continuity: The Reagan Doctrine and the Third World

       Reagan Doctrine:

       supported anti communist movements in various locations around the world

       unlike the US policy that focused on containing the expansion of communism, the Reagan Doctrine espoused “providing assistance to groups fighting governments that have aligned themselves with the Soviet Union”

       several anti-communist movements across three continents received both covert and overt American economic and military assistance and political encouragement

       The Iran-Contra Affair, 1984-1986

       best illustration of the Reagan Doctrine

       2 problems

       the Sandinista Government in Nicaragua (marxist)

       the Iranian government responsible for holding 63 Americans hostage for 444 days

       supported the Nicaraguan Contras fighting the communists, and enforced trade sanctions in Iran (particularly arms)

       Congress cut off aid to Contras, and Reagan went back on trade embargos with Iran in order to try and free captured Americans, and dissolve terrorist threats

       both of these actions hurt the credibility of the administration and changed how the Reagan Doctrine was being carried out

       Reagan was against the apartheid and practiced “quiet diplomacy” and he and the Congress battled over embargoes and sanctions over the subject

 Realism, Pragmatism, and the George H. Bush Administration

       didn’t hold a strong worldview like Reagan

       initial foreign policy impulse leaned toward maintaining continuity with the recent past rather than seeking change

       with the end of the cold war, Bush had begun to modify American foreign policy away from the anti communist principles of the past

       attention turned to the middle east, with the Gulf War

       Bush was a problem solver who worked well with those with whom he disagreed,
“results are more important than ideological victory; results are the best way to achieve political success”


       actively involved in policy making, which carried over to foreign affairs

       had many connections with leaders to due his 8 years as VP and was personal, which led to putting together, and keeping together an anti-Iraq coalition

       Approach to ending the cold war, and integrating the soviet union into the community of nations

       soviets must change global commitments (such as support for Sandinista regime in Nicaragua)

       reducing soviet troops in Eastern Europe, and tearing down the Iron Curtain

       must work closely with the West in addressing conflicts in C. America, southern Africa, and the Middle east

       must demonstrate commitment to political pluralism and human rights, as well as joining the US in addressing global problems such as drug menace and environmental dangers

       practiced pragmatism and moderation in global affairs

       got the soviets to help settle the Cambodian conflict

       Germany was unified in 1990, with support of the Allies (US, France, Britain, USSR)

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

       with change spreading through Eastern Europe, the soviet government was pressured

       1991 coup

       baltic republics achieved independence

       efforts were made to institutionalize democratic political reforms and western-style market reforms

       pressure for greater autonomy and even independence

       interested spectator in regards to the building of central europe...meaning the Bush administration was encouraging change, but not trying to shape it directly

       Malta Summit ended cold war between soviets and US

The Search for a New World Order

       Bush at UN convention: “a new era- freer from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and more secure in the quest for peace, an era in which the nations of the world, East and West, North and South, can prosper and live in harmony

Persian Gulf War

       Iraqi president Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait

       bush sent 150,000 troops in the Saudi area

       withdraw forces from Kuwait

       restoration of their own legitimate government

       protection of American citizens in Iraq and Kuwait

       security and  stability in Persian Gulf

       November 29, 1990 the UN security council issued resolution telling member states to “use all necessary means to uphold and implement” its earlier resolutions if Iraqi forces didn’t leave

       this mean the use of deadly force

       when they didn’t leave, Congress gave the president the authority to use American troops, as we sent 500,000 troops over, finally resulting in the “Hundred Hours War” as Kuwait was liberated






 

McCormick Ch. 5 Foreign Policy after the Cold War and 9/11: The Clinton & Bush Admins


Notes by Nolan Clark, spring 2015

 Post-Cold War Foreign Policy: The Clinton Administration

       Clinton ran for president with the theme of change after the Cold War

       needed “a new vision and the strength to meet a new set of opportunities and threats”

       The Values and Beliefs of the Clinton Administration

       foreign policy would be rooted in a clear set of principles derived from America’s past, guided by a coherent and workable strategy

       “we must tear down the wall in our thinking between domestic and foreign policy”

       Clinton, His Foreign Policy Experience, and His Foreign Policy Advisors

       Initially, Clinton was much more interested and knowledgeable in domestic policy rather than foreign policy

       Foreign Policy Advisors

       Had difficulty developing policy and explaining it to the public

       Second Term

       Clinton had become more engaged in foreign policy than 1st term

       Clinton’s foreign policy team changed; contained much more experience.

The Clinton Admin’s Evolving Approaches to Foreign Policy

       Phase One: Economic Engagement

       First priority was to use the international system to foster economic prosperity

       Domestic Level

       sought to develop the National Economic Council, which was created to revive the American economy and make US workers and companies more productive and competitive in the global market

       International Level

       North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) eliminated tariffs on goods among the US, Canada and Mexico

       World Trade Organization (WTO) moved to cut tariffs worldwide by 85%, and would become the new governing organization to regulate global trade for the future

       Phase Two: Democratic Engagement and Enlargement

       The administration had embraced an even greater commitment to liberal internationalism that it did initially

       committed the US to global involvement and leadership in the aftermath of the Cold War

       indicated that the US would act in the world either unilaterally or multilaterally on a  case-by-case basis

       committed the US to use force when necessary

       Strategy of Enlargement

       to strengthen and expand market democracies worldwide

       would be the post-Cold War successor to the policy of containment

       sustained economic gains by democratic states would propel continued peaceful relations, and democratic states would be equipped to peacefully pursue more open markets

       The strategy of enlargement proved to be an incomplete guide for responding to the challenges facing the administration in 93-94

       Phase Three: Selective Engagement

       The US would seek cooperative ties with other states, build economic and security institutions and support democracy and human rights

       liberalizing trading order, building new security structure in Europe, working for comprehensive peace in Middle East, halting the production of WMD’s, and combating international crime

       US’s principal objectives

       to enhance our security with effective diplomacy and with military forces that are ready to fight and win

       to bolster America’s economic prosperity

       to promote democracy abroad

       Selective Enlargement

       US would now act on more narrowly drawn national, rather than global, interests

       the administration would be more amenable to unilateral actions and would undertake them only if necessary

       US would be willing to use military force but would do so more carefully, sparingly and only after clear criteria were met

       the goals for US enlargement would focus less on remaking the international system through the expansion of market democracies and more on stabilizing relations among key states

       Implementing Selective Engagement

       Presidential Decision Directive-25 (PDD-25)

       specified several decision criteria for US involvement in UN operations

       Administration’s actions towards allies reflected renewed interest in security

       started several peace initiatives to address traditional security concerns

       undertook at least three actions to address the new dangers of WMD

       Chemical Weapons Convention -- successful in Senate

       Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty -- failed in Senate

       National Missile Defense Act

       key states now became the focal point of policy attention

       supported Yeltsin regime in Russia

       fostered US-China trade

The Legacies of the Clinton Administration’s Foreign Policy

       General Legacies

       Clinton Administration’s commitment to maintaining America's involvement and leadership in global affairs after the Cold War

       expanded role for the president in foreign policy

       extraordinary impact of domestic politics on foreign policy issues

       the limitations of American actions during the selective engagement phase flowed in large part from domestic politics

       Specific Legacies

       the placement of global economic policy at the center of American foreign policy

       stabilize the relationship between the US and its principal alliance partners

       stabilize the relationship with China and Russia

       the US would take the lead in conflict resolution

The Values and Beliefs of the Bush Administration

       Mainly came into office seeking continuity if foreign policy

       The Commitment to Continuity

       getting results is more important that claiming ideological victory

       more interested with relations between Soviet Union and China than Third World nations

       Bush’s Foreign Policy Team

       had a superb foreign policy team with very good pairs (Baker-Scowcroft)

       always agreed with Bush and had similar mindset

       Policy Approach of the Bush Administration

       Bush called for policy review involving the entire foreign policy counsel

       Policy Review: Initial Ideas and Proposals

       wanted to integrate the new Soviet Union into the community of nations

Classical Realism and the Bush Approach

       Classical realism

       based on several important assumptions about states and the state behavior that had direct implications for the Bush Administration’s initial foreign policy approach

       classical realists assume that states are the principal actors in foreign policy and that actions between states trump any efforts to change behaviors within them

       a state’s interests are determined by its power relative to other nations

       classical realists focus on managing relations among the major powers, as these are likely to be the major threats to the international system

       Bush Administration

       Bush came to office seeking to develop a distinctly American internationalism

       Bush made it clear that a top priority would be to refurbish America’s alliances around the world

       Russia and China would be viewed more skeptically

       hard power would be the preference for dealing with the international system

       remaking and strengthening of the military would be a top priority

Impact of 9/11

       American Public

       was the first substantial attack on the American continent

       fundamentally and attack on American civilians

       the terrorist attack was the deadliest in American history

       3000 killed, compared to 1000 at Pearl Harbor

       Congress

       Senate Joint Resolution 23

       authorized the president to use force against those who aided and participated in the terrorist attack

       USA Patriot Act

       gave executive branch greater discretion in pursuing terrorist suspects and narrowed some civil liberty protections

       The Department of Homeland Security Act of 2002

       President

       Bush assumed new responsibility and was now a “wartime president”

 Values and Beliefs of the Bush Admin: Post 9/11

       Defense Realism / Limited Idealism

       Bush admin embraced idealism in foreign affairs

       sought to promote common values within and across states

       Multilateral efforts were pursued

       broader, more universal security

       “Comprehensive American globalism”

       Sought conflict resolution in India and Pakistan

Formalizing the Bush Doctrine

       Bush Doctrine

       strengthen alliances to defeat global terrorism and work to prevent attacks against us and allies

       work with others to defuse regional conflicts

       prevent threats from enemies with WMD

       ignite new era of global economic growth through free markets and free trade

       develop agendas for cooperative action

       transform US’s national security institutions


 

 

McCormick Ch. 6  Change and Continuity in Foreign Policy: The Obama Administration


Notes by Justin Nolen, spring 2015

 Obama’s Focus on Foreign Affairs

       Ending Iraq and Afghanistan wars and bringing troops home

       He and his administration took a “Liberal Internationalist Approach”

       This promotes democracies and individual freedoms.

       Brings people together to talk about common problems.

       International law and institutions have modernizing and civilizing effect on states.

       Stay involved in global affairs and assist in bringing stability and order through leadership efforts.

Policy Review

       Renew Prosperity, provide common security, and nuclear weapons.

       Attempted to strengthen relations with Russia and Africa where he gave speeches in both.

       Clinton stated that this administration would be different because it would bring countries together to talk foreign policy and find the best solutions available, not always going to war.

National Security Strategy

       Rebuild America's Economy as the basis for strong global leadership.

       Commitment to living American values at home in order to show credibility abroad.

       Reshaping International System to handle the problems of the 21st century.

       Security, Prosperity, Values, and International Order

Goals for Worldview of U.S.

       Improve America’s Global Image. (Mainly Muslim Countries)

       Incorporating Domestic Values in Foreign Policy. (Close Guantanamo)

Addressing Security Issues

       Iraq (Ending American Combat Operations)

       Afghanistan (Putting a stronger focus on Terrorism within the country)

       North Korea (Waging to stop the test of Nuclear Weapons)  

       Iran (Waging to stop the use of nuclear fuel)

Confronting the Israeli- Palestinian Conflict

       The negotiations of the two countries had been at a standstill but Obama promised to assist them in anyway possible to open negotiations back up and to find peace.

Restarting Relations with Russia

       After a misunderstanding with the Bush administration at where the missiles in Czech Poland were facing, the Obama administration decided to have a ten year deployment plan of these missiles

Stabilizing Ties with China and Redirecting Attention to Asia-Pacific

       Develop a positive relationship with China and support the peaceful rise as a global power while fighting the way they treat their people.

       Continue to aid the Asia Pacific region which will increase world powers (China, India, Indonesia) and create more allies.

Initiating Global Common Issue

       Nonproliferation- Putting an end to nuclear weapons .

       Financial Reform- Standardizing banking regulations to create a better worldwide economy.

       Climate Change- Setting goals for developed and developing countries on emissions.

Criticisms of Obama Approach

       Policies don’t represent real change.

       Opposed the USA Patriot Act and then renewed his belief in it through his actions in Afghanistan by fighting terrorism.

       Troubled by the direction of the policies

       Failure to stop nuclear weapons in Iran

       His approach to foreign policy can look consequentialist

       Response to every threat


 

 

McCormick Ch 7. The President and The Making of Foreign Policy


Notes by Justin Nolen, spring 2015

 Commander-In-Chief

       President Obama used his power as commander-in-chief in March 2011 to send troops in Libya

       This was due to the a humanitarian crisis in Libya caused by the leader Gadhafi.

       President Bush used this same power as commander-in-chief in March 2003 to send troops into Iraq

       This was to protect the Iraqi people and take the lethal weapons out of Hussiens hands.

       President Ford believed Congress was too big and decisive to handle foreign policy.

Presidential Powers (Foreign Policy)

       Chief Executive

       Make executive decisions such as executive orders which usually deal with foreign affairs.

       Commander-In-Chief

       Lead the Military

       Chief Diplomat

       Make treaties, appoint and accept other ambassadors and ministers.  

Congressional Powers (Foreign Policy)

       Appropriate Funds

       All money coming out of the Treasury has to be done by approved by the Congress.

       Declare War

       War has to be declared by the congress because they have the right to prepare for the national defense.

       Has the right to be heard on negotiation of treaties

       Regulate International Commerce

       This has not only to do with the giving of money to other countries but also trade.

Early Years of the Country

       The early presidents were independent from Congress in making their foreign policy decisions

       The presidents were Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and Madison.

       Andrew Jackson relied on Congresses help with foreign policy decisions

       This lasted until Lincoln took office and he wanted a civil war to unify the US.

       Many feel that Lincoln overstepped his executive powers to get change.

       After the Civil War was known as the “Golden age of congressional ascendancy

       After WWII many precedents were set on how the president would have foreign policy control and it really hasn’t waivered since.

       Every President has defended their claims in citing the Commander-in-chief clause.

       Basically, throughout history we see a struggle with executive and legislative power with foreign policy. Many times this power has had dominance on both sides but now it seems to be on the side of neutrality because the president will make and executive order and congress will put up a blockade to stop it.

       I.E. President Obama trying to close Guantanamo Bay and Congress delaying the process by blocking housing projects to release the detainees too.

Supreme Court Cases

       Throughout time some supreme court decisions have supported executive power in foreign policy

       Curtiss-Wright, Missouri v. Holland, Belmont and Pink,

       These cases created precedents for executive power and weakened the role of Congress

       Other Supreme Court decisions have challenged executive power in foreign policy

       Yougnstown Sheet &Tube Co. v. Sawyer, New Yourk Times v. U.S., U.S. v. Nixon, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, and Boumediene v. Bush

       In these cases it has been seen that they have been less involved in reducing executive power and more involved with maintaining American freedoms.

       Supremes Court Nonrulings which have supported the President

       Usually these cases have to do with the president in a very direct way such as: Campbell v. Clinton, Dellums v. Bush, and Lowry v. Reagan.

       These cases usually reinforce the executive actions that have come before.

Executive Institutions

       CIA, Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Council

       These all came about as apart of the National Security Act of 1947.

       Agency for International Development, Control and Disarmament Agency, and U.S. Trade Representative.

       These came about after WWII.

       Department of Homeland Security and Homeland Security Council

       These came about after 9/11

In the state of emergency the President can act more quickly and efficiently than the Congress giving it the upper hand in Foreign Policy.






 

McCormick Ch. 8 Congressional Prerogatives and the Making of Foreign Policy


Notes by Justin Nolen, spring 2015

 

Bricker Amendment

       Any treaty or executive agreement that infringed on the constitutional rights of American citizens be considered unconstitutional and any legislation could be put in place by congress to implement an executive agreement.

Case-Zablocki Act

       Required the executive branch to report all international agreements to congress within 60 days of entering into force.

       Executive Agreements Review Act of 1975 said that both houses of Congress had the right of disapproval of executive agreements that involve national commitments.

       Treaty Powers Resolution said that the Senate could refuse funding if they felt that an agreement should have been a treaty.

War Powers

       Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed president a free hand in conducting the Vietnam War

       This was repealed by congress

Provisions of the War Power Resolution (WPR)

       Introduce armed force only when declaring war, specific statutory authorization, or national emergency created by attack of the homeland.

       Shall consult with congress before forces are sent and until their removal.

       When a declaration is not introduced by troops are deployed the president must submit a written report within 48 hours.

       Without a declaration of war American forces are not to be deployed more than 60 days. An extension of 30 days is possible

       Congress can pull the troops at in time immediately.

Presidential Compliance

       Different Presidents have reported more than others on military activities.

       This also has to deal with the militaries activity and foreign tension during a Presidential term.

       Clinton filed the most with 60 reports

       Nixon had no reports; Carter filed 2 reports

       Obama filed 11 reports; George W. Bush filed 39.

Continuing Controversies

       Failure to Fully Comply

       President have yet to fully comply to all the provision of the War Power Resolution.

       Failure to Report

       Presidents continually leave congress out of the loop on not reporting the deployment of more troops into a certain area of the world.

       Failure to Consult

       Congress feels that the president has not consulted with them deeply enough on the using military forces.

Reforming or Repealing the WPR

       Every President since Nixon has challenged the constitutionality of the WPR.

       The WPR has improved communication between President and Congress in the use of military force and deployment and has prevented long-term military force without approval from congress.

Controlling the Purse Strings

       Congress has the funding power.

       This has reduced military involvement abroad

       Stopped Covert actions in the 3rd world.

       Allowed congressional review of the sale of weapons and nuclear fuel to other countries

       Limited the transfer of U.S.  economic and military assistance to countries.

Cutting Off and Conditioning Funding

       Congress has been known to cut funding for things that it opposes.

       I.E. Congress cut funding to provide mainland facilities for the detainees at Guantanamo.

Earmarking of Funds

       Specific amounts of foreign aid for individual countries.

       These funds are given to countries that need the money and do good for the U.S. such as fight against terrorism or need help creating democracy. (Afghanistan)

Specifying Trade and Aid Requirements

       1970’s Legislation

       Jackson Vanik Amendment- grant a most-favored-nation status to countries who supported emigration and did not impose a tax or penalty. (Soviet Union was not granted)

       Nelson Bingham Amendment- this allowed congressional review of an arms sale to another country within a 20 day period and totalling 25 million or more.

       1990 and beyond Legislation.

       Freedom Support Act- Provide Economic assistance to former states of the USSR

       Nunn-Lungar Amendment- Newly emerging global threat of “loose nukes.”

       Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security Act of 1992 - the president had to certify that the recipient government had implemented peace, demonstrated human rights and democracy.

Expansion of Reporting Requirements to Congress

       President must file a written report on how foreign policy was carried out.

       Periodic Reporting(In certain time periods), Notification(Use of Military force), and One Time Reports(Particular Issue)

Senate Foreign Relations Committee

       Constitutional and Oversight Responsibilities- monitoring foreign affairs and consent on treaties and nominations

       Committees Leadership- Richard Lugar(1980’s) Jesse Helms(1990’s) Joe Biden(2000’s)

House Committee of Foreign Affairs

       Played important role in  formulation and review of foreign policy.

Armed Services Committees in the House and Senate.

       Examines legislative policy  on foreign affairs.

Congressional Oversight: The Recent Record

       Oversight has seen a decline especially throughout the Bush administration because Bush failed to share information and administration officials failed to testify before relevant committees

Legislation: Substantive and Procedural

       Substantive- Very rare and hardly approved from the Kennedy administration onward.

       Procedural- Is the way in which the Congress  has oversight on war powers like the WPR.

Non Legislative Actions: Institutional and Individual Actions

       Institutional Actions- Hearings held by committees that check the executive branch on things such as American Policy in Afghanistan.

       Individual Actions- Newsletters, Letters to the President, talk radio, working directly with other governments, and halting the presidents actions through court orders.

Degree of Change

       A sense of Tug-of-War has broken about due to the ending of the cold war on foreign policy.

       A change was made after September 11 2001 and it was for the best for George W. Bush.

       We have seen a change here recently with the struggle that Obama has faced with closing Guantanamo Bay.

Congressional Reform and Policy Impact

       Public Record has not been pushed therefore many things go as “classified.”

       Congressional reform on the issues of the struggle of power that has come about due to  foreign policy have been infrequent.

       Escape Clauses- The President can push anything through if he feels that it is in the best interest of National Security.

       Legislative Veto was declared unconstitutional

       Still perceives limits on how far congress should go in influencing and restricting foreign affairs.

 



McCormick, Ch. 10, The Military and Intelligence Bureaucracies

These notes only cover the second section of the chapter.

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)

Notes by M. Blair Casebere, Spring 2015

JCS: the Chief of staff of the Army, the Chief of staff of the Air Force, the chief of Naval Operations, the commandant of the Marine Corps, and a vice-chairman and chairman.

Responsibility is: to a.) recommend to the president (pres.) and secretary of defense (sod) the military requirements of the US and the how those requirements are to be met, b.) provide them with strategic planning and c.) too coordinate the use of those forces if necessary.

The greatest hindrances that make the JCS probably less effective in policy than the civilian side of the Pentagon are 1.) they have only had a mixed favor from pres.s and sod.s since 1947—for example (ex:) Pres. Kennedy lost his whatever confidence he had in the JCS after what he perceived as bad advice on the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961—and 2.) the fact that each joint chief’s commitment to his own service has reduced the JCS’s combined impact. Divided loyalties also produce policy differences, which lead to compromise recommendations with a lack of support by all services.

Policy-making Reform

The Defense Reorganization Act (1986)/Goldwater-Nichols Reorganization Act made key changes that changed the power and authority of the JCS.

These changes consisted of

1.) Give more power to the chairman in policy formulation and recommendations.

The chairman, not the JCS, was designated as the president’s primary military adviser, responsible for providing the executive with a range of military advice on any matter requested.

2.) Change the command structure.

The unified Combat Commands (those who are responsible for coordinating the four armed forces) gained greater authority.

Since then, 6 regional commands and four functional commands have come into existence; and the CINCs have become highly influential in military operations and, sometimes, in policy.

In short, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs had begun to play a more central role in policy making.

However, Joint Chief Staff chairmen, General Henry Hugh Shelton, General Richard Myers, and General Peter Pace, did not achieve the policy-making impact of their immediate predecessors.

Shelton was not a key player in the tragedies of 9/11, nor were General Myers or General Pace.

The reduced role of these JCS chairs produced considerable criticism of the Bush administration (admin) for undermining the military-civilian relationship within the Pentagon.

The issue emerged of whether the military, including the JCS, had been too deferential to civilian leadership over operational matters such as military expertise.

General Myers and his co-author, Richard Kohn, disputed the change that the administration overruled the military on tactics, contending that there was only the normal “pulling and hauling” between the participants on policy agenda and its direction.

Although the Goldwater-Nichols Act generally benefited the JCS, it also significantly benefited from the CINCs.

Military officials heading the regional commands around the world assumed a larger role in policy formulation and implementation.

In this they were aided by the decline of State Department influence through continuous budget cuts and the attribution of staff and through the diminished role of the service chiefs of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.

Goldwater-Nichols also benefited the Joint Staff because the JS works directly for the chairman of the JCS.

In all, uniform military officials play a large role in the shaping and implementing of policy, and the Goldwater-Nichols reforms were important in bringing that about.

 

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