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Part 1 of 3. Regional Dreams: a video Documentary.
Links to Maps
of Europe are provided below.
After Destruction of WWII desire for an
European Community, beyond nations.
1. But Regional Dreams & Identities:
1st Catalans; 2nd Europeans; 3rd Spaniards
desires regional autonomy; has its own
EU important for Catalonia
Feast of St. Juwan: celebrates Catalans'
Catholic Church in Constitution
contraception, abortion, & divorce
Maastricht: affect abortion laws?
Euro Court of Justice to overrule Irish
EU Court reluctant to rule against a nation
Feb 92, rape victim vows suicide if not
allowed to cross to GB for an abortion; Ireland's Supreme court rules against
on const'l grounds.
Ireland: relax moral laws or lose economic
benefits of EU.
[PM Albert Reynolds launches and wins
referendum '92 to permit travel to UK for abortions.]
2. The Rich and The Poor Regions
e.g. Hamburg distinctive wealth
balance wealthy West with poor East
e.g. Italy mafia, especially in the South
Southern Italy very poor
contrast poor Naples hospitals w/ wealthy
20% of EU below poverty line
in 1990's division between rich and poor
within the EU grew larger
division creates tension; difficult to
have a single policy or even a single entity
3. EU Law Enforcement
Free trade does reduce regional differences
But lack of borders makes law enforcement
single language for French and GB police
easier to control cross-border crimes
one European language? could be very efficient
but very complicated
National pride also a strong barrier
4. A Federal Europe, [or Subsidiarity?]
as EU power increases, national power
decreases and regional power increases
region of Spain wants autonomy
has used violence (ETA movement)
a unique language
Ethnic Pride on the rise; Catalonia,
Basque, and Yugoslavia
Catalonia is Catholic, but unlike Ireland
it is progressive and an economic leader
5. Farm Policy
e.g. French farmers blockade Euro Disney
Disney cultural imperialism by Americans
French angry at U.S.;
U.S. wants EU to cut agricultural tariffs
e.g. Wales Sheep Farmers
small farms: a way of life
e.g. Holland modern and efficient farms
overproduce because of subsidies
Common Agricultural Policy
CAP buys most of the farm products
Small farmers caught in the middle
reduce subsidies but keep small farms?
6. Green Movement
Environmentalism on the rise
European standard for odor
Euro Cities limit cars
Amsterdam: car free in historical district
pollution problems cross national borders
Region of France
protection for "champagnes" of Champagne
also protection for Scotch whiskey and
8. Paradox of EU
regions becoming stronger at expense
of national level and European level expanding at expense of national level
9. European tension between Young and Old
younger: larger European outlook
older: more conservative, traditional;
renewal of ethnic and regional pride
The New Europeans, Part 3 of 3: Road
to Unity, a video documentary.
1. Desire for EC based on destruction of WWII
2. Maastricht Agreement: towards Union
joint foreign and defence policy
Qualified Majority voting
Brits delay on Euro until 1997, unable to join
[ironically were one of few countries to make the inflation, growth and
budget targets by that date].
Rejected by Danish referendum
Narrowly supported by French and Irish
EMS Collapsed; Sterling, Lira and Peseta collapsed
["Federalism" versus "Subsidiarity" in question]
3. Railroad Union
since 1883 proposal by Leopold II of Belgium,
Brussels as capital of new Europe, $4 Tr economy
symbol of commercial union
centered on Belgium
proposal by Leopold II of Belgium,
Brussels as capital of new Europe, $4 Tr economy
4. Commerce driving Union (Eg. Benetton,
heir to Venetian tradition of color dyeing)
Italian traditional textile trade
principle of capitalizing on regional strengths
so all of Europe becomes stronger (theory of comparative advantage)
Travel to East for spices became dangerous when
Ottoman Empire controlled Eastern mediaterranean.
Explorers of renaissance looked west to discover
Portuguese/ British port wine trade based on
alliance of renaissance period.
French Cuisine universalized, e.g. on Orient
Express luxury trade that crosses borders.
5. Diplomatic summits since 1815 Vienna; a
drive for a community to prevent war.
Hapsburg palace in Vienna, representing the former
Austrian Empire & age of civilization and Congress of Vienna.
Ended Napoleonic wars, based on elaborate protocol
with 14 entrances.
Next century though witnessed Crimean war and
a series of imperial wars.
Brussels puppet theatre illustrates history of
European wars, quest for peace, Brussels at crossroads of languages and
Flanders fields symbolize losses in Great War.
Bosnia, in civil war in 1990s, saw the spark
that fired the Great War 1914-1919, which caused the humiliating Versailles
Second world war brought carpet bombing, mass
Europeans desire an alternative to all this destruction.
Coal, Iron, and Steel Community
(Churchill's "Union of Europe as a whole" Speech)
Treaty of Rome 1957, signed 1958 by the first
half dozen nations
6. Institutions vs. Traditional Interests
(example of youth orchestra, in Italian palace
symbolizing renaissance patronage of arts)
English violinist illustrates erosion of prejudices
from contact among young people
9 different languages, rehearsals conducted in
English, English reluctant to learn foreign languages [unlike many continentals],
emphasis on shared heritage
Economic and Political Union now sought by some
e.g., weak Euro Parliament in Strasbourg, organized
by theme, not nation.
No authority to initiate legislation or raise
Debating chamber and centre of lobbying.
Lobbying for economic nationalism:
Lord Plum, committed European, but limited by
e.g. Brit food (e.g. Dickensian Smithfield Meat
Hygiene, behind St. Paul's cathedral, where market was soon to be closed
by EU) -- cockneys discuss impending unemployment in a pub [drinking beer
threatened by EU purity standards.]
Cultural Nationalism as Rituals (e.g. bullfights
7. Regional and Industrial Policy
redistribution to the poor regions (eg. Portugal
& Esprit high-tech research program)
Multinational teamwork [in 1990s] to compete
with Japanese [in 1980s] but few marketable products developed.
Enables researchers to remain in Portugal and
cooperate via communications.
European Space agency beating NASA at launching
(e.g. Airbus by Euro Aerospace, competing with
8. Market - end to national subsidies
Lorraine steel, declining despite large subsidies,
heavy unemployment, steelworks closing.
Workers not insulated from foreign competition.
Symbolizes loss of strategic industries.
9. Maastricht Treaty
political, foreign policy, monetary union
ceded national sovereignty to EU
required unanimous agreement
rejected by the Danes in a Referendum, To Be
or Not to Be, European, because of
loss of fishing
fear of reunited Germany
Denmark has lost jobs on the land, and is becoming
a tourist economy, trying to save heritage
Tradition of royalism and independence.
Ireland (despite fear of weakening of anti-abortion
laws) and France (despite anti-government feeling)
passed Maastricht, -- but EMS & ERM suddenly
UK, Italy & Spain were forced to devalue
France then passed the referendum because aware
of fragility of EU.
(exchange commissions are a barrier to trade,
reduced by Euro currency)
Monetary union remains Europe's greatest challenge;
ecu was a preliminary system of balancing credits,
but without a currency until Euro.
Required central banks to give up control of
currency and hence of economy.
much adaptation needed?
Benetton illustrates fickle nature of fashion