THE STUDY OF POLITICS.
Basic Concepts of Politics
COMMUNITY = association of individuals who share a common identity.
SOVEREIGNTY = claim by government which fully makes rules in a territory.
AUTHORITY = command obedience of society's members.
LEGITIMACY = where claim to rule is accepted.
NATION-STATE = most important form of political organization.
State = viable sovereign government exercising authority.
Aristotle (384-322 BC) said Man alone sees good & evil.
The PURSUIT of Justice
Nature of Man.
COMPARATIVE: contrasting different governments, stages of dev, political traditions, domestic & foreign policies. David Easton's systems model p.19. Dem and non-dem states. North-South relations.
I.R.: war & peace, diplomacy, econ interdependence, UN, nuclear deterrence. Trade. Realists vs idealists.
P.A.: emerged as separate discipline. What helps or hinders government from carrying out policy. Case studies common.
Self-Improvement: state assumptions, arrange evidence, logical conclusions.
Self-Knowledge: citizenís development is affected by political environment.
DEVELOPMENT AND DISINTEGRATION
Hamilton wanted US nation state to unite to reverse European attitude to backward Americans.
The Modern Nation-State: A Brief Model
higher efficacy, loyalty to broad community
trend to manufacturing and then to service sector
unions tend toward evening up the income spread
stable government with bloodless changes of government
great penetration of government into society
Rousseau skeptic about development making happiness.
SECOND world communist states
THIRD world developing countries of Asia, Africa & Latin America & islands.
Asian tigers or dragons are ADCs (advanced) or NICs (newly industrializing countries); account for 60% of Third World manufacturing exports!
Vast diversity of large (Brasil, India) & small (islands.)
VIETNAM or Kampuchea or both communist and developing.
Not all agricultural: middle eastern oil.
Modernizing is essential to growth. Even Qatar & Venzuela have modernized to use their oil wealth.
Achieving national destiny often means growth supporting armed forces for border disputes eg Latin America.
Revolution of rising expectations: caused by growth in North.
Indian constitution recognizes 16 languages, census says 1,000 dialects.
clashes constantly between religions.
ASCRIPTIVE societies: caste & religion etc set position in society.
DEBT: 3rd World 1987 owed $1 trillion to North.
POP GROWTH 2 tp 3% in LDCs, zero growth in W.Euro.
GREEN REVOLUTION. high yield grains plus fertilizer
URBAN GROWTH: African cities double size every 10 yrs, Latin faster.
DISTRIBUTION of LAND problem: latifundias & minifundias.
DISASTERS often natural but exacerbated by overgrazing.
VICIOUS CYCLE of unproductivity and poverty.
Attack colonialism w/ CHARISMATIC leader common method.
PATRON-CLIENT RELATIONS: influential figures secure benefits for clients at village level.
DISTRIBUTION and injustice question.
SLAVERY in US history.
1929 Crash partly destroyed German regime.
HUNTINGTON argued literacy & mass media can work against progress because of lack of political institutions. Political & social modernization may not be in harmony.
2 PARTY model helps bridge rural -urban divide, says Huntington. Left says exploitation by elite regardless.
Modernization can bring tensions: fall of Sadat, Shah, Prague spring.
IN SEARCH OF THE IDEAL STATE
Utopia = nonexistent, ideal state. (Sir Thomas More, c. 1500 AD)
PLATO'S Republic: PHILOSOPHY Is the Answer
VIRTUE: Homer's courage, Jesus' living by Word of God; Plato in questioning.
EXECUTED for corrupting youth by questioning Gods.
Best society is devoid of tension between rulers and philosophers.
The JUST CITY
Philosophers through excellence understand justice.
PRICE: abolition of families; censorship; false moral basis; rule of those who do not desire it.
CONCLUSION: phil exercise, not a political prescription.
Island has isolation, economic prosperity, no need for defense.
Christian but gives freedom.
Feast of Family is central.
Stability and progressive Science
Object of science is prosperity and health (natural medicines thru experiments.)
The Centrality of Economics -- ultimate determinant of human life.
The Science of Behavioral Engineering
The Scientist as God
The Road to Utopia
Utopia and Human Nature
Utopia and the Neglect of Politics
The Prevalence of Authoritarian States
Characteristics of Authoritarian States
Six Myths about Authoritarian States
All Authoritarian Regimes Are Illegitimate
All Authoritarian Regimes Are Unpopular
All Authoritarian Regimes Neglect the Public Interest
Modern Dictators Depend on New Technology and Methods
The Revolutionary Stage of Totalitarianism
Purging Real or Imagined Rivals within the Party
Creating a Monolithic Society
Germany under Hitler
China under Mao
Does Totalitarianism Have a Future:
CONTEMPORARY COMMUNIST STATES.
The Central Party Organs
The Perils of Centralization
A Classless Society?
Everyday Life in the Worker's State
Pervasive Social Problems
A Totalitarian System?
Yugoslavia: Socialism with a Split Personality
China: Beyond Maoism
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