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PSC 209: World Politics, Chapter Notes

Rourke, John T. & Mark A. Boyer, International Politics on the World Stage,

Students' Notes of Brief, Eighth edition | Notes of Full Editions

revised 4 Aug. 2015 by Jeremy Lewis

Note: PSC 209: World Politics, uses the Brief edition of the full book formerly used by PSC 303.  The brief edition combines some chapters and shortens all. PSC 303 adopted a more upper level text. The Full 10/e condensed 3 levels of analysis chapters into one, and reduced the chapter numbers of all subsequent chapters. Note new Full 11/e renumbered chapters again.  Below is a mixture of notes from Full 10/e and 11/e.  Also, Full 12/e was then published for 2010.

Ch. 1: Thinking and Caring About World Politics [Notes from Full edition]
Ch. 2: The Evolution of World Politics [2015]
Ch. 3: Levels of Analysis and Foreign Policy [Notes from Full edition]
Ch. 4: Nationalism, the Traditional Orientation
Ch. 5: Globalization: The Alternative Orientation [Notes from Full edition]
Ch. 6: Power, Statecraft and the National State: The Traditional Structure [Notes from Full edition]
Ch. 7: Intergovernmental Organizations: Alternative Governance [2015]
Ch. 8: International Law and Human Rights
Ch. 9: Pursuing Security  [2015]
Ch. 10: National Economic Competition: The Traditional Road [Notes from Full edition]
Ch. 11: International Economic Cooperation: The Alternative Road [2015]
Ch. 12: Preserving & Enhancing the Biosphere

Brief Edition, Chapter 2: The Evolution of World Politics
by Georgianna Hunt, summer 2015
I. The Evolving World System: Early Development
A. Ancient Greece and Rome
1. Terrritorial State
2. Sovereignty
3. Nationalism
4. Democracy
B. After the Fall of Rome, A.D. 476 to 1700
1. Universal Authority in the Middle Ages
a. Religious Authority
b. Secular Authority
2. Local Authority in the Middle Ages
3. The Decline of the Feudal System
a. Military Technology
b. Economic Expansion
4. The Decline of the Universalistic Authority
5. The Emergence of the Sovereign State
C. The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
1. Popular sovereignty
2. Westernization of the international system
3. Multipolar system
4. Power poles
5. Balance of power
6. Balance-of-power politics
II. The Evolving World System: The Twentieth Century
A. The Rise and Decline of the Bipolar System
1. Superpower
2. Cold war
3. Bipolarsystem
4. East-West axis
5. Containment doctrine
6. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
7. Third World
8. Détente
9. Realpolitik
B. The End of the Bipolar System
III. The Twenty-First Century: The Genesis of a New System
A. The Polar Power Structure in the Twenty-First Century
1. A Unipolar Moment
2. The Multipolar Urge
3. Limited Unipolarity
a. Limited unipolar system
4. Future Polarity
B. Other Power Changes in the Twenty-First Century
1. The Weakening Western Orientation of the International System
2. Challenges to the Authority of the State
a. The Forces of the McWorld
b. The Forces of Tribalism
1. Tribalism
2. Ethnonational groups
c. Security in the Twenty-First Century
3. Global Economics in the Twenty-First Century
a. Economic Interdependence
b. Economic Disparity between North and South
1. Economically Developed Countries (EDCs) North
2. Less Developed Countries (LDCs) South
3. Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs)
4. Gross Product (GNP)
5. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
4. Quality of Life in the Twenty-First Century
a. Human Rights
b. The Environment

Brief Edition, Chapter 7: Intergovernmental Organizations: Alternative Governance
by Georgianna Hunt, summer 2015
I. An Overview of Intergovernmental Organizations
A. A History of IGOs
1. Theories of IGO Formation
a. Functionalism
b. Neofunctionalism
B. The Growth of IGOs
1. Hague system
2. League of Nations
3. United Nations (UN)
C. Reasons for Growth
1. Increased international contact
2. Increased global interdependence
3. The expansion of transnational problems
4. The failure of the current state-centered system to provide security
5. The efforts of small states to gain strength through joint actions
6. The success of IGOs
D. Roles that IGOs Play
1. Interactive Arena
E. Center of Cooperation
F. Independent International Actor
G. Supranational Organization
1. Regional governments
2. World government
3. Unitary Government
4. Federation
5. Confederation
6. League
7. Arguments for Expanding Supranational Authority
8. Arguments against Expanding Supranational Authority
II. Global IGOs: Focus on the United Nations
A. Membership and Voting
B. Membership Issues
1. General Membership Issues
2. Membership Issues in IGO Substructures
a. Plenary representative body
b. UN General Assembly (UNGA)
c. Limited membership council
d. UN Security Council (UNSC)
3. Controversy over Membership on the Security Council
C. Voting
1. Majority voting
2. Supermajority voting
3. Weighted voting
4. Unanimity voting
D. Leadership
1. Selecting the UN Secretary-General
2. The Current UN Secretary-General
E. Administration and Finance
1. Administration
2. Administration Reform
3. Putting Charges of Maladministration in Perspective
F. Finance
G. Activities of the UN and Other IGOs
1. Activities Promoting Peace and Security
a. Creating norms against violence
b. Providing a debate alternative
c. Intervening diplomatically
d. Promoting arms control and disarmament
e. Imposing sanctions
f. Peacekeeping
H. Social, Economic, Environmental, and Other Activities
1. Promoting economic development
2. Advocating Human Rights
3. Advancing international law and norms
4. Improving the quality of human existence
5. Guarding the environment
6. Encouraging independence through self-determination
I. Evaluating Global IGOs
1. Fulfillment of ultimate goals
2. Acquiescence to your goals
3. What is possible
4. Progress
5. World opinion
6. Whether alternatives
III. Regional IGOs: Focus on the EU
A. The Origins and the Evolution of the EU
1. Economic Integration
a. European Economic Community (EEC)
b. European Communities (EC)
2. Political Integration
a. Maastricht Treaty
3. Governance of the EU
4. Political Leadership
5. Bureaucracy
a. European Commission
b. President of the Commission
6. Oversight Agencies
a. European Ombudsman
b. Court of Auditors
7. Legislature
a. European Parliament (EP)
8. Judiciary
a. Court of Justice
9. The Future of the EU
10. Campaign for a Constitution
11. Reflecting on the EUís Future

Brief edition, Chapter 9: Pursuing Security

I. Thinking about Security
A. A Tale of Insecurity
B. A Drama about Insecurity
C. Critiquing the Drama
II. Conflict and Insecurity: The Traditional Road
A. War and World Politics
1. Frequency
2. Severity
B. The Causes of War: The Three Levels of Analysis
1. System Level Causes of War
a. The Distribution of Power
b. The Anarchical Nature of the System
c. System-Level
d. System-Level Biosphere Stress
2. State-Level Causes of War
a. Militarism
b. Externalization of Internal Conflict
3. Individual Causes of War
a. Human Characteristics
b. Individual Leadersí Characteristics
C. Terrorism
1. The Nature and Limits of Terrorism
a. Domestic terrorism
b. International terrorism
2. Sources of Terrorism
a. State Terrorism
b. Transnational Terrorist Groups
3. The Record of Terrorism
4. Terrorist Weapons and Tactics
a. Conventional Weapons Terrorism
b. Radiological Terrorism
c. Chemical and Biological Terrorism
5. The Causes of Terrorism
a. System-level analysis
b. State-level analysis
c. Individual-level analysis
6. Combating Terrorism
7. Unconventional Force
a. Arms Transfers: Where and Why
8. Arms Transfers: Drawbacks
a. Increased violence
b. Facing oneís own weapons
c. Hypocrisy
9. Special Operations
D. Conventional Force
1. Conventional warfare
E. Goals and Conduct of War
1. War is a part of diplomacy
2. Wars should be governed by political, not military, considerations
3. War should be fought with clear political goals
4. Escalation
F. Avoid Unchecked Escalation
1. Keep lines of communication open
2. Limit Goals
3. Restrict geographical scope
4. Observe target restrictions
5. Limit weapons
G. Weapons of Mass Destruction
H. Biological Weapons
I. Chemical Weapons
J. Nuclear Weapons
1. Nuclear Weapons States and their Arsenals
a. The United States and Russia
b. Other nuclear weapons states
2. Nuclear Deterrence and Strategy
a. Mutual assured destruction (MAD)
b. Nuclear utilization theory (NUT)
III. Global and International Security: The Alternative Road
A. Limited Self-Defense through Arms Control
1. Methods of Achieving Arms Control
a. Numerical restrictions
1. Strategic Arms Reduction Committee (START I & II)
b. Categorical restrictions
1. Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF)
2. Ant-Personnel Mine Treaty
c. Development, testing, and deployment restrictions
1. Non-proliferation treaty (NPT)
d. Geographic restriction
e. Transfer restrictions
2. The Barriers to Arms Control
a. International Barriers
1. Worries about the possibility of future conflict
2. Doubts about the value of arms control
3. Concerns about verification and cheating
4. On-site inspections
5. National technical means (NTM)
b. Domestic Barriers
1. National Pride
2. Military spending, the economy, and politics
B. International Security Focus
1. International Security Forces: Theory and Practice
a. History of a Cosmopolitan Point of View
b. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
c. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
d. African Union (AU)
e. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
f. Collective security
1. The Theory of Collective Security
2. Peacekeeping
3. Peacekeeping issues
4. Peacekeeping and peace enforcement
5. Peace enforcement: Humanitarian intervention or neocolonialism
g. International Security and the future
2. Abolition of War
a. Complete Disarmament
1. General and complete disarmament (GCD)
b. Pacifism

Brief Edition, Chapter 11: International Economic Cooperation: The Alternative Road
By Georgianna Hunt, summer 2015
I. Economic Cooperation and Development: Background and Requirements
A. The Origins of Economic Cooperation
B. Development of the South
1. Economic Diversification
2. Limited economic reliance on primary products
3. International market and investment access
4. Stable currency
5. A strong human infrastructure
6. A strong physical and technological infrastructure
7. Domestic order
8. Effective government
II. Economic Cooperation and Development: The Institutions
A. The United Nations and Economic Cooperation
B. The UN and Global Economic Regulation
C. The UN and Development
1. Extreme poverty
2. International Conference on Financing for Development (ICFD)
3. UN Development Programme (UNDP)
4. UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
5. Group of 77 (G-77)
D. Trade Cooperation and Development: The WTO
1. World Trade Organization (WTO)
2. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
a. The structure and Role of the WTO
b. Revisiting the GATT: The Doha Round
1. Uruguay Round
2. The Doha Round
E. Monetary Cooperation in Support of Development: The IMF
1. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
2. Special drawing rights (SDRs)
3. The Role of the IMF
4. Criticisms of the IMF
a. Voting
b. Conditionality
5. Defense of the IMF
F. Development Cooperation: The World Bank Group
1. World Bank Operations
a. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
b. International Development Association
c. International Finance Corporation
d. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
2. Controversy about the World Bank Group
G. Economic Cooperation and Development: EDC Institutions
1. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
2. The Group of Eight (G-8)
III. Regional and Bilateral Economic Cooperation and Development
A. The Western Hemisphere
1. The North American Free Trade Agreement
2. The Free Trade Area of the Americas
3. Mercosur (The Southern Common Market)
B. Asia and the Pacific
1. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
C. Other Regions
D. Bilateral Trade Agreements
IV. Cooperation and Development: Debating and the Future
A. The Case for Economic Internationalism
1. Economic Advantages
a. General Prosperity
b. Benefits of Specialization
c. The Cost of Protection
d. Promotion of Competition
e. Providing Development Capital
2. Noneconomic Advantages
a. World Cooperation
b. Decreased violence
c. Promoting democracy
B. The Case for Economic Nationalism
1. Economic Advantages
a. Protecting the Domestic Economy
b. Diversification
c. Compensating for Existing Distortions
d. Putting Domestic Needs First
2. Noneconomic Advantages
a. National sovereignty
b. National security
c. Policy tool
d. Social and Environmental Protection
C. The Globalization Debate in Perspective

[Brief 12] Ch. 12: Preserving & Enhancing the Biosphere