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Optional: purchase Union Jacks herePSC 321: British Politics

Patrick Dunleavy, Andrew Gamble, Ian Holliday, Gillian Peele (eds)

Developments in British Politics, 6

Student-written Outlines

(check for differences in revised edition of 6)
revised 6 Nov. 2003, compiled by Jeremy Lewis




Patrick Dunleavy, "Introduction"
Elizabeth McLain, 2003
  • At the heart of Europe?
  • ? The first major structural change involves the UK’s relationship with Europe, expressed most by whether Britain should or should not join the European currency union.
  • ? The issue split parties.
  • ? The issue is whether the British national interest is best served by specific measures like currency union or whether such measures mean an irreversible loss of control over areas of policy judged crucial for the well-being of the British people.
  • ? Is it possible to oppose closer involvement without advocating withdrawal from the Union altogether?
  • ? Britain joined the European Union in 1973, and it has had important effects on the way British politics run.
  • ? Jointing the euro will be a key point in British politics. If against membership, Britain may be disengaged from other Community policies and institutions. If for it, Britain will quicken its emerging with European polity.
  • ? There are four scenarios: Calling a referendum shortly after a general election that returns Labour for a second term, running referendum and election simultaneously, having referendum prior to the general election, possibly avoid referendum by seeking a general mandate in its election manifesto and taking a decision early in the life of a new parliament.
  • A new constitutional settlement?
  • ? The second structural change is the programme of constitutional reform.
  • ? This was launched by the Labour government in 1997.
  • ? It would call for the devolving of assemblies, powerful mayors, a bill of rights and a more democratic House of Lords.
  • Which way for British parties?
  • Additional notes:

  • Dunleavy 1: "Introduction"
    Krista Leachman Fall 2003

    -1990’s saw a return to business as usual and reassertion of the two-party system, alternation of the parties in govt., and re-established of consensus between the parties on the main lines of policy.
    -change happens slowly &incrementally and in a context that is heavy determined by legacies of the past
    -Britain at a turning point
    At the Heart of Europe
    -UK’s relationship w/ Europe
    -Should or should not Britain join the European currency union?
    -UK gradually moving closer to integration
    -Is Britain’s national interest best served by a cooperation of currency union?
    -differences such as immigration, tax, & safety come about
    -for Blaire’s govt., timing is good
    -running the referendum and election simultaneously
    -staging referendum prior to general election
    -govt. might avoid holding a referendum all together
    -largest issue is UK’s own interest
    A New Constitutional Settlement
    -program of Constitutional reform launched by the Labour govt. in 1997
    -govt. has continued the trend towards centralization of power in Downing Street, at the same time as it has created devolved assemblies and city mayors
    -formulating and legislating complex schemes of the constitutional change has shown how difficult it is for the government to control the way its initiatives develop once they “go live.”
    Which Way for British Parties?
    -radical reconstruction of the party system and the possibility of a fundamental political realignment
    -substantial growth of third parties
    -strategic aim- make the left of the centre the dominant force in British politics in the 21st century
    -emphasize individual opportunity and community rather than equality
    -cooperation with liberal democrats
    Conclusion
    -British Politics in a critical phase

    Dunleavy 1: Introduction
    Tiffany Tolbert, 2003.

    · At the beginning of the 21st century there were different opinions as to where British politics was going.
    o Dunleavy says that Britain is at a turning point at which the impacts of three major structural changes are changing the content and way of politics.
    § The changes came mainly from the Labour government and 1997
    · Britain's three structural changes
    o U.K’s relationship with Europe and its membership in the EU and the European Currency debate
    o Constitutional reform program launched by the Labour government in 1997
    § Reason – because of the reaction to the way the country was ran between 1979-1997
    § Labour’s constitutional agenda only works if the political culture changes to be more tolerant of political diversity and pluralism
    · Hard because Labour has found it hard to accept pluralism and diversity – they have worked hard to keep tight central party control in the assemblies
    o Radical reconstruction of the party system and the possibility of fundamental political realignment
    § Party system changed in the 70s and 80s because both parties changed their organization’s ideology and policies
    § Because both parties have undergone dramatic changes in the last 20 years, it is impossible to go back to the old two-party system.
    § The aim of these new politics is to establish “the left” as the dominate power in British politics in the 21st century
    · Just as the conservatives did in the 20th century
    § All of this is based on the success of electoral reform
    § End result is the “New Labour Project”
    · Will emphasize involvement in the new global economy and individual opportunity


    Top of page


    Ch. 2: Steven Fielding, "A New Politics"
    By: Sierra R. Turner 2003 *  Another version is below.
    I. As the UK entered the new millennium, many commentators believed that British politics had been transformed. In their view, as Labour and the Conservatives appeared to have set aside their distinctive ideologies, the substance of party activity had been recast.
    II. A ‘new politics’
    a. A major feature of the new politics is said to be a lack of significant disagreement between the parties, chiefly due to he impact of ‘globalization’.
    b. This change in perceptions of state capacity was due to three factors which, taken together, are generally held to constitute economic globalization.
     i. First, the power of financial speculators, considerable in any case, was said to have increased.
     ii. Second, industrial employers were thought more willing and able to relocate their operations.
     iii. Finally, the level of international trade was said to have risen, putting a premium on competitiveness.
    III. The ‘old politics’
    a. The concept of the ‘new politics’ is juxtaposed with what political life is thought to have been like during the three decades following the Second World War.
    b. According to the classic view, the period 1945-75 saw both party leaderships in broad agreement over the essential basis of economic policy.
    c. While ‘consensus’ is undoubtedly a problematic term, it nonetheless, indicates the extent to which, by the 1950s, both leaderships found themselves in broad, if imperfect, agreement over key economic policies.
    IV. A second ‘consensus’
    a. The ‘post war consensus’ is generally agreed, even by those who believe in the term, to have the ended during the 1970s.
    b. By then, the interventionism which had underpinned it was associated with failure.
    c. That state interference was to blame for Britain’s economic problems is uncertain, but by the ending of the post-war world boom forced Britain and others into deep recession, did not exactly help.
    V. The Third Way
    a. If Labour easily won the 1997 general election, it did so less by applying new means and strategies than by applying tried and tested methods in an exceptionally focused and disciplined way.
    b. Nonetheless, the new Labour government was thought to have inaugurated a novel phase in British politics, a belief confirmed by Blair’s assertion that his administration adhered to a Third Way, beyond the established positions of left and right.
    VI. New political alliances
    a. Comparisons are often drawn between Blair and Bill Clinton. Indeed, Blair has been accused of wanting to ‘Clintonize’ Labour.
    b. This said much about his desire to emulate Clinton’s appeal to socially conservative middle-class voters who had last voted for a Democratic presidential candidate in 1976.
    VII. The Conservatives in opposition
    a. After the Conservative’s 1997 thrashing, the party’s new leader, William Hague called for a ‘fresh start’ and advanced what he termed the ‘British Way’- a deliberate counterpoint to Blair’s Third Way.
    b. He could not distinguish his party from Labour by dramatically pushing economic policy in an even more free-market direction- this would have been electorally disastrous.
    VIII. Political divisions
    a. Despite some of the rhetoric of the Third Way, talk of a new consensus based on the irrelevance of left and right consequently needs qualification.
    b. One of the most important thinkers to believe this is the Italian Noberto Bobbio, who argues that the question of equality is central to the left/right distinction.
    IX. Conclusion
    * All of the above material was copied from the text Developments in British Politics.

    Ch. 2: Steven Fielding, "A New Politics"
    By: Krista Leachman, 2003

    -Labour party under Tony Blair outlined a "third way"

    A "New Politics"
    -authoritative intellectuals to argue that the west was experiencing massive economic and social transformations with profound political consequences.
    -major feature is lack of significance disagreement between the parties, chiefly due to the impact of globalization
    -change in perceptions of state capacity

    1) power of financial speculators was said to increase
    2) industrial employers were thought more willing and able to relocate their operations
    3) the level of international trade was said to have risen, putting a premium on competiveness
    -began to experiment w/ new forms of popular legitimation

    The "Old Politics"
    -The period 1945-75 saw both party leaderships in broad agreement over the essential basis of economic policy
    -by the 1950's, both leaderships found themselves in broad agreements over key economic policies
    -The means by which politics was delivered was subject to limited criticism.
    -It is in disputable that in the earlier period the 2 major political parties enjoyed higher levels of support than 50 yrs. later.
    A Second "Consensus"
    -many post-war conservatives had seen state intervention as a necessary evil: by the 1970's it was a necessity
    -Neil Kinnock- argued that Labour had to embrace low inflation as government's immediate goal
    -1990's- Tony Blair became Labour leader

    The Third Way
    -party's message was that it was best able to run the economy
    -according to Blair, the Third Way stood between Thatcherite Conservatism
    -Labour had more in common w/ other European social democratic parties
    -Liberal democrats wanted a more proportional electoral system

    The Conservatives in Opposition
    -William Hague- "British Way"
    -conservatives adopted 2 responses to defeat copycat republicans from U.S.- promoted a more "inclusive" social agenda

    Political Divisions
    -conservatives- rarely discuss equality except to attack schemes designed to increase it

    Dunleavy 2: A New Politics?
    Tiffany Tolbert, 2003.


    Old Politics
            Between 1945-75, both parties were in agreement over the basis of economic policy.  Referred to as a “consensus,” it is thought that Churchill’s wartime coalition government brought this.  The nature of the consensus, however, is disputed, but the term does describe the agreement both parties had during the 1950s on key economic issues.  This is sometimes referred to as an “end to ideology,” but as in the 1990s, the parties were trapped in the ideologies of doing what was politically possible and economically necessary.  Dunleavy says that just because the parties worked with what was possible it did not mean they were no longer ideological.  Despite the appearance, both parties continued to pursue their established separate ideals.

    Second Consensus
            The post-war consensus ended by the 1970s.  After that the beginning of Thatcherism is seen.  Thatcher aimed to liberate the market to preserve a social order that was being threatened by too much government.  Some of her ideas were, highly traditional, she sustained that trade union leaders knew their place, two-parent families were the norm and loyalty was to the monarch.  This appealed to the expanding middle class.  Progressive taxation was also eliminated and replaced with regressive indirect taxes.  The conservatives distanced themselves from policies that were known to the consensus.
            Labour’s position during this time was hard cause they tried to push their established policies.  Power in the party went to activists who said the leaders were betraying socialism – the activists pushed regulations, nationalization and higher taxes.
             Thatcher’s triumph faltered in her policies.  The privileged middle-class professionals were criticized.  By the 1990s, people felt that the parties focus on the market was endangering the social order and Major replaced Thatcher in 1992.  Major and ministers were not able to address the issues about public service and social cohesion.
            Tony Blair became leader of the Labour Party.  He wanted to gain former conservative voters.  He used some of the conservative’s policies and supported the conservative idea of the welfare state creating a dependent culture.  Blair’s leadership ended the start of a “second consensus.”

    Changing of Politics
            Many of the claims for new politics cannot be sustained.  New parties with new issues remain on a small scale.  The two major parties still dominate, however the nature of the political process is still under scrutiny.  In 1997, Blair promised constitutional changes, though once on office he has been in no hurry to enact them.  The question of electoral reform remains in “limbo.”  Blair has not responded to the issue, although he appointed a commission to develop a new system.  The commission mixes first-past-the-post with proportional representative, so that the chances for a coalition government will increase.  However Blair refuses to act on it, until he is secure for re-election.  Blair has also avoided integration within the EU, though this is not a new issue, it has been debated since the 1960s.

    Ch. 2: A New Politics (Dunleavy)

                                By: Marie Wilkerson, 2003

        As the UK entered the new millennium, many commentators believed that British politics had
    been transformed. In their view, as Labour and the Conservatives appeared to have set aside
    their distinctive ideologies, the substance of party activity had been recast.
    A New Politics
    -A major feature of the new politics is said to be a lack of significant disagreement between the
    parties, chiefly due to he impact of 'globalization'.
    -This change in perceptions of state capacity was due to three factors which, taken together,
    are generally held to constitute economic globalization.
     1. The power of financial speculators, considerable in any case, was said to have
         increased.
     2. Industrial employers were thought more willing and able to relocate their operations.
     3. The level of international trade was said to have risen, putting a premium on competitiveness.

    -The British economy underwent significant change during the 1980s and 1990s.
    The Old Politics
    -The concept of the 'new politics' is juxtaposed with what political life is thought to have been
    like during the three decades following the Second World War.
    -The period 1945-75 saw both party leaderships in broad agreement over the essential basis of
    economic policy.
    -The contents of 'agreement' included establishing a universal welfare state financed through
    progressive taxation and using government intervention to secure full employment.
    -While 'consensus' is undoubtedly a problematic term it indicates the extent to which, by the
    1950s, both leaderships found themselves in broad, agreement over key economic policies.
    A Second Consensus
    -The 'post war consensus' is generally agreed to have the ended during the 1970s.
    -By then, the interventionism which had underpinned it was associated with failure.
    -Whether state interference was to blame for Britain's economic problems is uncertain, but by
    the ending of the post-war world boom forced Britain and others into deep recession, did not
    exactly help.
    THE THIRD WAY
    -If Labour easily won the 1997 general election, it did so less by applying new means and
    strategies than by applying tried and tested methods in an exceptionally focused and disciplined
    way.
    -The party's message was promoted with unique vigor; it was directed at the target group
    (disillusioned Conservatives).
    -Nonetheless, the new Labour government was thought to have inaugurated a novel phase in
    British politics, a belief confirmed by Blair’s assertion that his administration adhered to a Third
    Way, beyond the established positions of left and right.
    New political alliances
    -Comparisons are often drawn between Blair and Bill Clinton. Indeed, Blair has been accused
    of wanting to'Clintonize' Labour.
    -This said much about his desire to emulate Clinton’s appeal to socially conservative
    middle-class voters who had last voted for a Democratic presidential candidate in 1976.
    -It led to the adoption of tactics employed by the successful Clinton presidential campaign in
    1992 and 1996.
    The Conservatives in opposition
    -After the Conservative's 1997 thrashing, the party's new leader, William Hague called for a
    'fresh start' and advanced what he termed the ‘British Way’- a deliberate counterpoint to Blair’s
    Third Way.
    -He could not distinguish his party from Labour by dramatically pushing economic policy in an
    even more free market direction- this would have been electorally disastrous.
    -The Conservatives consequently adopted two responses to defeat.
     *Echoing the tactics of certain Republicans in the United States. Hague promoted a more
    'inclusive' social agenda.
    Political divisions
    -Despite some of the rhetoric of the Third Way, talk of a new consensus based on the
    irrelevance of left and right consequently needs qualification.
    -One of the most important thinkers to believe this is the Italian Noberto Bobbio, who argues
    that the question of equality is central to the left/right distinction.
    The Changing structure of politics
    -Many of the claims for a new politics can not be sustained
    -Those parties seeking to advance new issues, such as the environmentally inclined Greens,
    remain marginal.

    Top of page



    Ch. 3: Jon Pierre and Gerry Stoker, "Restructuring: Towards Multi-Level Governance"
    By: Krista Leachman (another is below)

    -Collective interests are defined and pursued at four different institutional levels: the local
    authority, the region, the state, and the EU.
    -Today, the role of government in the process of governance is much more contingent.

    The Challenge of Multi-Level Governance
    -refers to negotiated exchanges between systems of governance at different institutional levels
    -British political system was characterized by parliamentary sovereignty
    -governance signifies "a change in the meaning of government, referring to a new process of
    governing; or a changed condition of ordered rule; or the new method of which society was
    governed.
    -one perspective is to look at governance as those formal or informal processes of coordination
    that lead to the resolution of common problem and challenges
    -the other perspectives looks at governance in a more state-centric perspective and asks
    questions about how traditional institutions are transforming to meet the challenge of
    governance.

    Developing the Differentiated Polity: the Conservatives' Legacy and Labour's Programme
    -The Conservatives passed the Single European Act of 1986 which amended the founding treaties
    of the EC.
    -Reduction in the powers and responsibilities of elected local government and expansion of the
    world quangos.
    -The sale of public sector assets to the private sector including most of the major public
    utilities and nationalized industries.
    -The reconstructing of central departments and the creation of over 150 agencies.
    -The Labour Government has shown much more interest than the Conservatives in the democratic
    reform of local government.
    -Labour's agenda- concern to restore public trust and legitimacy to the political life of
    councils in order for them to take on a broad community leadership role.
    -The British polity has changed not only in the way that it does its business but in its
    institutional structures.

    Governance: Unresolved Tensions in British Polity
    -future relationship with the EU
    -difficult to keep the PR debate off the agenda
    -key issue- how to establish a shared vision
    -new skills, practices and ways of working are having to be forged in order to ensure the
    effective operation of multi-level governance

    Conclusion
    -first scenario- embracing federalism as the mechanism for driving multi-level governance
    -second scenario- holding back multi-level governance
    -third scenario- future lies in managing multi-level governance
     
     

    Dunleavy 3 - Multi-Level Government
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003

         Collective interrests defined and pursued at four levels
              Local authority
              Region
              State
              EU
         Multi-Level govenrnane refers to negotiated exchanges between systems of gov't at different levels
              makes no pre-judgements about the hierachical order of insitutions
         Challenges "Westminster Model"
              british system characterized by parliamentary sovereignly, strong cabinet government nad acocuntability
              limited and misleading
         in terms of governance, UK is not united
         governance is the playing out of conflict and coopration in a borader arena than the formal insitutional of government
         Conservatives (1979-97) critical of others, called it "constitutional tinkering"
              most of their actions influenced the constitution
                   developed relationship with EU
                   Reduced powers of elected governments
                   sold public assets to private sector
         Labour has not touched conservative changes
              started its own major program of consitutional reform and restructuring
         there are different scenarios for the future of multi-level government
              embracing federalism as the mchanism for driving multi-level governance
              managing multi-level governnance
                   need for a core to give direction and leadership

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    Ch. 4: Simon Hix, "Britain, the EU, and the Euro"
    By: Krista Leachman, 2003 (another is below)

    -Europe has been a salient issue in British Politics ever since Britain joined the EEC in 1973.
    -1999 Amsterdam Treaty
    The EU and British Politics
    -EU policies now cover virtually all areas of public policy
    -In the area of regulation, over 80% of rules governing the production,
    distribution, and exchange of goods, services, and capital in the British market are decided by the EU.

    The British Position in Europe
    -Britain has always been one of the member states most opposed to the
    creation of a federal "United States of Europe"
    -Blair govt. is strongly in favor of Enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe
    -The EP's main legislative competences are in rules governing economic,
    social, and environmental regulation in the EU single market
    -Blair govt. is only moderately more "integrationist" than the major govt.

    The electoral environment: the public's position on Europe

    -"affective support" is an ideological or nonmaterial belief in the
    value of the political system
    -"utilitarian support" is the belief in a political system on the
    condition that the system increases the material (economic) well being of an individual
    -more people in Britain were opposed to the euro then were in favor
    -working class and small business owners are the most anti-European groups in Britain
    -the median British voter is certainly more eurosceptic than the EU average
    -European integration is largely on elite-driven project

    Inter-party Competition
    -the Labour and Conservative leaderships colluded to keep the question
    of Europe out of domestic politics

    Interest Groups, the Media and the "No" and "Yes" Campaigns
    -private British interests are extremely well represented in the EU
    policy process
    -IOD is strongly anti-European
    -very few British papers are overtly pro-euro
    -Daily Telegraph and the Sunday Telegraph are openly anti-euro
    -several pressure groups have been established on each side of the
    debate over British membership of EMU.

    1999 European Parliament Election
    -European elections are about the fight for national government office between national party leaders.
    -less incentive for supporters of governing parties to vote, and turnout is generally lower
    than in national general elections, with governing parties suffering most
    -the elections are about national government office, people who do vote often vote differently
    than if a national election were held at the same time

    Conclusion
    -the new Labour has a better chance than in other British government of being "the heart of Europe"
    -two key differences but the main point is that if Blair decides to get off the fence and
    advocate British membership of the single currency, it will be an uphill battle
     
     

    Chapter 4 - Britain, EU and Euro
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003

         EU policies cover all areas of public policy
              led to new kind of multi-level political system wiht power shared with the EU
              British gov't constrained by EU policy outputs
                   80% of rules govern production of goods and services
              in foreign affairs, Britian is bound by the EU's Commoon Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP)
         Two types pf support for political system
              Affective - ideological belieif in value of political system
              Utilitarian - belief in system on the condition that the system increases the economic good of an individual
              citizens in original states of EU have high affective support of the EU
                   British citizens less than enthusiatistic about European integration
                        British had stronger attachmnet to Englsih speaking than continental Europe
              Changes in opinion on European intergration have followed Europe trends rather than British
                   in euro debate, Britain opinion followed European trend
                        more people in Britian opposed ot it
                             by 1997 Britains were pro-euro, but then British economy did better than eur-community,
                             anti euro sentiment began
         Elite are more pro-european than the British mass public
         When parties take opposing stances on the question of Europe, they could undermine internal party cohesion
              main political parties chose not to compete on the issue of Europe
             by end of 1990s, the quaetion was a major element of inter-party competition
         British interest groups are represented in the EU policy process
              have secured legislation representing their interests in the EU
         Few british newspapers are pro-euro
         European elections are "second order" national contest
              Two phenomenons
                   less incentives for supporters of parties to vote
                   people who vote ofter vote differently than in national elections

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    Dunleavy 5, Gillian Peele, "Law & The Constitution"
    by Brandy Smith, 2003.
    - The UK is gradually becoming a multi-layered pluralistic democracy.
    - This is quite different in structure and culture from the older, heavily centralized system of government of the pre-1997 period.
    - The effects of Blair's constitutional initatives is to expand the role of law and the judiciary in the political system.
    - The EU has steadily become a significant factor in all aspects of British politics and policy making.
    - Formal powers and informal intellectual influences reinforce each other.
    - One important legacy which the Blair government accepted was the new style of public administration marked by deregulation, privatization, and agencies.
    - This new public management created problems of accountability within the state.
    - For the Labour however, Britain's membership of the EU was one factor creating a new legal framework and transforming the relationship between policy-makers, politicians, and lawyers.
    - The Labour party for the most part had no problem with the new extensions of judicial role.
    - Law was then beginning to be viewed as a tool for improving British democracy as a growing concern
      with rights & for strengthening accountability focused attention on public law.
    - The years 1979-1997 changed the judiciary first, by the judges becoming less complacent about the
      ability of traditional common law methods to protect civil liberties, and some senior judges publicly advocated a bill of rights.
    - Secondly, legal and penal policy saw dramatic and public conflicts between conservative ministers
      and judges in the 1980s.
    - Labour was thus confronted with a world in which law inevitably played a larger part.
    - In addition to a series of constitutional reforms, the Labour Party also promised a modernization of the legal system.
    - The difficulties occasioned by the division of responsibilities for legal matters between departments has long been compounded by the complexities of different legal jurisdictions.
    - Labour's problem was how to reform the composition of the Lords without at the same time increasing its legitamacy and thereby threatening the Supremacy of the Commons.
    - One solution was a wholly appointed chamber.
    - Although the Labour government has set in motion some modernizing policies and developed initiatives from its predecessors, these have proved highly controversial and may have undesirable side effects in terms of access to the legal system.
    - All these circumstances suggest that not merely is the pace of change in the legal system likely to quicken but the lawyers are likely to play an even greater role in the governmental process.
     
     

    Dunleavy 5: The Law and Constitution
    Tiffany Tolbert, 2003.

            Blair’s constitutional reforms have been to expand the role of law and the judiciary in the political system.  The new changes will make a difference in certain issues and will bring judges to the middle of the political system and set new tasks for them. This will cause judges to be more visible due to the amount of conflicts they will have to resolve.  One question that has been posed, is how suited it the British judicial system is to an expanded role?  However the demand for resolutions of disputes by judges has increased, this is shown in the new amount of judges which has risen from 288 in 1970 to 3000 in 1998.

    Changes in the British State
             Blair’s constitutional reforms fall into a long-term process of adaptation and reform that has been ongoing since 1979.  Since that time the EU has become more influential in British politics and policy making.  The UK has accepted the constitutional superiority of the EU over the Westminster Constitution.
             The British state has also changed due to indigenous development.  There has been an increase in the use of administrative law as judicial review.  Judges have a determination to setup a system of administrative law effective in the modern state.
             The political culture has changed due to larger international influence and more exposure to the practices of other political cultures.  This has led to more concern for human rights and civil liberties.

    Conflicts of Labour and Law
             The Labour party has always suspected the judiciary of being reactionary and biased toward the Conservative Party.  Labour has also saw the judiciary as being extremely conservative (i.e. choosing property rights over welfare rights)

    Constitutional Agenda
             The speed of constitutional reform concerned some people.  There were some issues that occupied Labour’s first 2 years in power.  Among these were Devolution, House of Lords reform and other legislation.  Enacting constitutional reform was important because how it was implemented would be crucial and the way it was to be implemented was by the court system
             The House of Lords reform was the most confusing.  Labour’s problem was to reform it while increasing its legitimacy, but at the same time letting the House of Commons remain supreme.  The process of reform was staged.  In 1999, law removed hereditary right.  Commission was set to find new way of election for the House of Lords while still keeping the House of Commons in control.  One solution that was developed was to make the HOL a fully appointed chamber, this was good because it posed the least threat to the HOC and eliminated the need for an electoral system in the HOL.  However, appointed was seen a very undemocratic and could have led to patronage.
     



    Dunleavy 6 - Executives & Administrations
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003
         Core executive is the heart of the UK state
              core executive - cabinet, commitees, cabinet office, prime minister office, treasury
         Only deep divisive matters needing real consensus from gov't are debated in the cabinet
              been years since cabinet was a real decsion making forum
         Prime Ministers office and the cabinet office house the executives civil servants
              they support the work of key politicians
         Treasury has enhanced its position at the center of the state
         EU has no single organization that can be called an executive
              Council of ministers comes close

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    Ch. 7: Philip Cowley, "Legislatures and Assemblies"
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003 (another is below)

     -British politics was said to be “post-parliamentary”
    -Despite the low self esteem in which the existing legislatures are held, a central part of Labour’s package of constitutional
    reform was the creation of yet more legislatures and assemblies.

    -4 systems
    1-Scottish Parliament- has 129 members: election-73 by SMP 56 from regional list: powers- primary/secondary legislative
    power, tax varying powers
    2-Northern Ireland Assembly- has 108 members: election- STV (6 per Westminster seat): powers- primary/secondary
    legislative power
    3-National Assembly for Wales- has 60 members: election- 40 by SMP 20 from regional lists: powers- secondary legislative
    power
    4-Greater London Assembly- has 25 members: election- 14 by SMP 11 from London-wide list: powers- largely consultative,
    but with no power to alter budget by two-thirds majority
    -All these institutions are unicameral.
    -Coalition or minority governments are not unknown in Britain.

    Literature grouped around three basic theories
    1-minimal winning coalition
    2-minimun size coalition
    3-minimal connected winning coalition

    -Procedures and Structures
    -Overlooked in the run-up to devolution was the question of how the new bodies would function.
    -Suffer from archaic working practices, not open and inclusive, unnecessarily confrontational, failing to operate as an effective
    check upon the executive.

    - Modernizing Westminster
    -Modernization of the House of Commons
    -reform of scrutiny of European business
    -making Prime Minister’s questions more effective
    -reform the House of Lords
    -Ignoring Westminster

    Complaint consists of four main strands: majority, discipline, arrogance, House of Lords

    -The European Parliament
    -more misunderstood than the UK Parliament
    -powers grew in a piece-meal fashion
    -still lacks many powers
     
     

    Dunleavy 7 - Legislatures & Assemblies
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003

         Four new Bodies operating along side Westminster
              Scottish Parliamnet
              Northern Ireland Assembly
              Natiano Assembly for Wales
              Greater London Assembly
         Scottish Parliamnet
              larggest and most powerful of new legislatures
                   has full leglsative powers
              has limite tax-varying powers
                   being able to raise the income tax in scotland over three pence
         Northern Ireland Assembly
              has power to pass primary legislation
              might have tax-varying powers
              cannot pass primary legislation
              can allocate the budget
              can make secondary legislation
         Greater London Assembly
              smallest & weakest
              most power goes to the elected mayor
                   can make proposals to the mayor
              can be consulted on issues
         New legisltures are unicameral
         Due to use of PR in member elections majority rule in the chamber is unlikely
         New legislatures did not eant to emulate British Parliament in its procedures
              Seen as slow and inclusive
              new ones suppose to be modern and friendly
     


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    Ch. 8: Patrick Dunleavy, "Elections as Party Politics"
    By: Krista Leachman, 2003 (another is below)

    Political alignments and party performance since 1997
    -1997 election reversed the average conservative and Labour vote shares
    -to understand the roots of the 1997 result it is important to take account of two factors:

    1) where parties are located in ideological and policy terms on the left-right spectrum
    2) how credible and effective a party seems to voters as a potential
    govt., especially in terms of its political leadership
    -conservative lost votes so badly in 1997

    The Weak Roots of Labour's Dominance
    -modern social-democratic parties attracts support from middle class voters
    -Labour and Liberal Democrats had a good yr. in 1997

    Electoral System Change
    -For over 60 yrs. British party politics was dominated by an implied
    deal between the Conservative and Labour leaderships to preserve
    plurality-rule voting as the basis for all elections in the UK.
    -Wales- Labour was expected to get a majority but collapsed sharply
    -Royal Commission on the Reform of the House of Lords reported and
    recommended an overwhelming appointed structure for a new second chamber

    The Changing Dynamics of Britain's Multiple Party System
    -know what the phrase "two-party system" means
    -all 3 of the party systems of mainland Britain voters also moved a long
    way from the "classic" picture drawn by political scientists in the 1960's and 1970's.

    Dunleavy 8: Elections and Party Politics
    Tiffany Tolbert, 2003.

  • 1997 election
  • o Brought in a period of Labour dominance in party politics
    o Radical break from the normal vote share patterns of the 1980s
    § In the 80s voting from social groups changed fundamentally rather than temporary as in the 1997 election
    o Labour is more successful in maintaining opinion polls, but that does not mean electoral success
    · Party alignments since 1997
    o 1997 election gave Blair the highest majority in the HOC ever
    § Labour got the support because more people felt ready to give their support
    § This caused the lines between parties and classes to blur even more
    · 1997 breakthrough for Labour
    o Analyst say parties can maximize votes by taking position of median voter
    § By shifting towards the median voter, Labour and Conservatives could get more support from these voters and not lose their “core voters”
    o In 1997 introduced “policy-making by focus group”
    § This allowed Labour to redo their commitments and remove unpopular ones
    o Labour presented itself as well-run and well lead
    § Voters took the pledged as being more credible
    § Blair introduced well-times party reforms
    o Unusual performance in opinion polls marked change in 1997
    §  After election the support of Labour remained high
    ·  No “mid-term slump”
    · Change in multi-party systems
    o British party system has always been represented as a classic two-party system
    § Remains the same despite, the major parties only getting 75% of the vote
    · Labour and Conservatives can still run the HOC as a two-party club and reduce the influence of other parties in issues of business


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    Ch. 9: Paul Webb, "Political Parties: Adapting to the Electoral Market"
    By: Sierra R. Turner, 2003
    Another version is below.

    I. In recent years British political parties have attempted to transform themselves into increasingly sophisticated electoral organizations in order to adapt to an increasingly fluid political environment.
    II. This has been most apparent in the case of new Labour, whose name has become a byword for coordinated party discipline and slickly professional election campaigning.
    III. Since 1974 proportionally fewer voters have strong partisan loyalties, elections to the Westminster parliament are no longer the only important ones, and the major parties no longer dominate the competition for votes right across Britain. These changes imply that there are now fewer electoral certainties.
    IV. Political models of party organization

    a. Political scientists generally recognize that party organizations have changed historically as their primary forces have altered.
    b. Maurice Duverger argued, in his writing Political Parties, that in the pre-democratic era parties were purely parliamentary alliances of elites who banded together for the purpose of coordinating legislative action; such parties lacked extra –parliamentary national organizations and grassroots memberships.
    c. This elitist organizational ideal type was referred to by Duverger as the cadre party, and its rather restricted form of local organization as the caucus.
    d. By contrast, the democratic era saw the invention of the mass-branch party, a form of political organization which depended on large numbers of grassroots members, and more centralized national structure.
    e. Thus, as the central functions of parties shifted from coordinating legislature action to politically integrating the masses, their typical organizational structure changes.
    f. Though no British party confirmed to precisely to either of Duverger’s ideal types, clearly the older Conservative and Liberal parties had pre-democratic origins and structures resembling those of the cadre party, while Labour had more in common with the mass-party model.
    V. Party competition and political marketing
    a. Much academic attention has been devoted to the development of election campaigning in Britain since the 1980s.
    b. Prior to the era of mass access to television, election campaigns were characterized by limited (and relatively late) preparation, the use of traditional party bureaucrats and volunteer activities, direct communication with electors through public meetings, rallies, and canvassing and relatively little central coordination of campaigning across the country.
    c. It is abundantly clear that the major British parties have evolved into highly professional, market-oriented organizations which are geared to the needs of virtually permanent campaigning.
    d. The party which now best exemplifies a highly professional and media-oriented approach to political marketing is undoubtedly Labour, though it was not always thus.
    e. The Conservatives have generally effected a far smoother transition to the age of political marketing even though in recent years they have been clearly surpassed by the Labour party. There is no doubting the party’s continuing commitment to the techniques of modern political marketing.
    f. No other parties in Britain have taken the art of professional political marketing as far as the major two parties, not least because of the cost implications. Labour and the Conservatives are considerably wealthier than any other party and can spend far more on their election campaigns.
    g. Nevertheless, even the Liberal Democrats are showing signs of a growing sophistication and professionalization in their marketing options. Three features of recent campaigns demonstrate this.
     i. First, the party has become notably more inclined to invest resources in opinion research.
     ii. Second, the party ran a more coordinated national campaign.
     iii. The third feature of contemporary Liberal Democrat campaigns which shows how they have moved some way towards professional political marketing is the party’s grow willingness to focus on the leadership.
    VI. The changing balance of power within parties
    a. Since 1980 Labour has made a number of constitutional changes that have potentially and actually affected its internal distribution of power, and many of these reforms have been promoted under the label of ‘decentralization’. Overall, such reforms have almost certainly not been designed to enhance the power of individual members in making policy, though they may well have done so in choosing candidates and leaders.
    b. Until relatively recently, the Conservative Party made few claims to be a democratic organization, which is hardly surprising in view of the party’s cadre-caucus origins.  Nevertheless, the party’s grassroots have been able to exercise a certain informal influence over elites.
    c. Overall, the Liberal Democrats can be regarded as a comparatively democratic party which offers individual members clear incentives to participate. The Liberal Democrats exemplify a more orthodox form of territorial federalism, with distinct ‘state parties’ in England, Wales, and a federal party for Britain as a whole.
    VII. Developments in party funding
    a. Labour has wrought a remarkable reduction in its financial dependence on the trade unions over the course of a little more than a decade.
    b. Throughout the 1990s the Conservatives have consistently run an accumulated debt.
    c. The Liberal Democrats plainly have relatively meager resources, spending only a fraction of either majority party during election years.
    d. Parties need to be adequately resourced in order to meet the exponentially growing costs of modern campaigning and marketing, which explains (in part) the recent changes in party funding.


    Ch. 9: Paul Webb, "Political Parties: Adapting to the Electoral Market"
    Krista Leachman, Fall 2003

    -political parties attempt to transform
    -voters claiming identity has barely dropped since the 1960’s
    Changing Models of Party Organization
    -Maurice Duverger, Political Parties
    -argued predemocratic parties were purely Parliamentary alliances of elites who banded together to coordinate legislative action
    Party Competition and Political Marketing
    -academic attention devoted to developing election campaigning
    -Labour- highly professional and media oriented approach
    -Conservatives- far smoother transition to the age of political marketing
    -Liberal Democrats- take the art of professional political marketing as far as 2 major parties
    The Changing Balance of Power within Parties
    -Labour- made constitutional changes to affect internal distribution of power
    -Conservatives- underwent organizational reform in the wake of the 1997 election
    -Liberal Democrats- comparatively democratic party which offers  individual members clear incentives to participate
    Developments in Party Funding
    -funded by state or interest groups

    Dunleavy 9: Political Parties: Adapting to the Electoral Market
    Tiffany Tolbert, 2003.

    · British parties have tried to turn in to electoral organizations

    o Labour is the most obvious
    § It wants to adapt to the fluid political environment
    · Party organizations have changed mainly because their purposes have changed
    o Maurice Duverger said that pre-democratic parties were Parliament alliances of elites who wanted to coordinate legislative action or the cadre party
    § Democratic era say the emergence of the mass-branch party
    · They developed out of the need to deal with the growing population


    · Competition and Marketing

    o Labour
    § Highly professional and have a media oriented approach to marketing
    § They use the best of professional expertise
    o Conservatives
    § Thatcher, in the 1970s, brought a shift to the party’s exploitation of campaign techniques
    § The party has a continuing commitment to the modern political marketing techniques
    o Liberal Democrats
    § More inclined to invest resources in opinion research
    § Have considerable less money than they other two parties
    · Balance of Power
    o Parties have been thought to be dominated by their parliamentary leaders, regardless of beliefs in democracy
    § Labour
    · Maintained a federalist model of democracy by having representatives from other organizations who vote at the parties annual conference
    · Since 1980 the party has made constitutional changes that have affected its internal distribution of power
    o These reforms were not meant to give more power to individual members in policy making,
    §  They have increased the power in choosing a candidate and leaders
    § Conservatives
    · Made very few claims to be a democratic party
    · More reform after the 1997 election than Labour
    o “Fresh Future” – document that listed very radical changes for the party
    § Intimated constitutional revolution for the party
    § In the end a “single and unified” party would be created
    · Local membership bodies, national headquarters and parliamentary party came together in one single structure
    § Liberal Democrats
    · They can be seen as a comparatively democratic party, which gives its members incentives to participate
    o Membership have large participatory rights in matters of policy making, leadership election and candidate selection


    · Party Funding

    o Most parties are funded by either the state of linked interest groups
    § This is because in wanting to attract votes, parties want to avoid being heavily dependent on particular interests.
    · Labour has decreased it’s financial dependence on trade unions


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    Dunleavy 10: Margaret Scammell, "New Media, New Politics"
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003

     -The twentieth-century story of communications ended as it began: in a state of revolution.
    -Media market in the UK
    -Television-to early to gauge the impact of the new digital channels-predicted effects of increased competition and lighter
    regulation are at last becoming evident on ITV.
    -Consequences- less prime time political news on the mainstream commercial channels, might expect the force of
    competition to affect reporting styles on the mass channels
    -future shape of British political broadcasting depends in large measure on the BBC
    -cross pressured by a desire to compete in the global economy

    -Newspapers- surveys confirm that television is the most important source of national news for the majority of the
    population.
    -The Mirror and Guardian were in Thatcher times- the Express under the Labour government- for the euro the Times,
    Independent, and Financial Times.
    -Party Communications in the new media environment
    -The trends of change generally indicate a less comfortable media environment for the parties.
    -Labour has taken practice of political marketing in Britain to new levels.
    -The Labour approach does standout and is wedded to communications.
    -methods include an abiding faith in the importance of driving the news agenda
     
     

    Dunleavy 10 - Media & Politics
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003

         Media has come to be seen as creating new inequalities and fostering economic imperialism
         all forms of media becoming one big industry, whihc is turing into a future econmic sector
         the TV market in Britain is high
              BBC use to control television, digital channels taking over
              develonments in television will affect poltiics
                   a competitive and deregulated market leaves less time for the discussion of issues
                        less prime time poltiical news on mainstrean channels
                        reporting styles will change also - more focus on human interest stroies
         Press has greater influence on voting behavior
              has no obligations to fairness and balance and can be partisan

    Ch.10: New Media, New Politic (Dunleavy)

                                            By: Marie Wilkerson, 2003
    -The twentieth-century story of communications ended as it began: in a state of revolution.
    THE MEDIA MARKET IN THE UK
    Television
    -The terrestrial TV market share in Britain is high by comparison with the US and some European countries.
    -It is too early to gauge the impact of the new digital channels.
    -The change is evolutionary but nonetheless profound compared tot the period from 1955 to 1990 when the BBC/ITV a
    near-monopoly of advertising revenue.
    Newspaper
    -Survey after survey confirms that television is the most important source of national news for the overwhelming majority of the
    population.
    -Media effects studies repeatedly show that the press, rather than TV, has the greater influence on voting behavior.
    -Labour had a fantastic press in 1997, for the first time gaining more support that the Conservatives.
    Party communications in the new media environment
    -The trends of change generally indicated a less comfortable media environment for the parties.
    -They predict the response of intensified party attention to the techniques of news management and political marketing.
    -Labour has taken the practice of political marketing in Britain to new levels.
    -Labour's approach does stand out and is unashamedly wedded ot communications.
    Conclusion
    -There is a vast mismatch between the popular, and politicians', perception of media as enormously powerful, and the
    consensus of social science research, which finds only modest effects.
    -It is not surprising that media have little effect in election campaigns, where most issues are already well known and voters are
    driven by bread-and-butter domestic concerns.

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    Dunleavy Ch. 11 Political Participation and Protest
    Elizabeth McLain, 2003 (others below)

    Voting and the increasing plurality of political parties in Britain
    -Political participation is down, particularly voting.
    -In the 1997 general election, voter turnout declined from 77.7% in 1992 to 71.5%, lowest since 1935.
    -Voters showed more enthusiasm for Scottish devolution with turnout in the referendum for the new Scottish Parliament at 60% and no regions fewer than 50%.
    -In Wales, turnout was significantly less at 42%.
    -Although voting declines, voting for certain types of parties has risen. “Other” parties doubled from 3.5% to 6.8% in 1997.
    -The single issue Referendum party, which is opposed to Britain’s EU membership, was the most successful with 3%.
    -Planned changes to the election and leadership of local government may further contribute to the increasing plurality of parties in British politics.
    -Other mainstream measures of political participation remained low as compared to the past. In 1992, Labour membership was 280,000, lower than at any time since 1930.
    -The Conservative Party has lost more than half its members since 1950.
    -Between 1990 and 1995 the Green Party membership dropped from 20,000 to under 4,000.
    -In a survey of the “People’s Panel,” 51% of respondents said that they didn’t feel involve in the local government. Only 5% said they were involved “a great deal.”

    Protest and demonstration
    -Protest and demonstration, sometimes violent, has increased.
    -In the 1990s, political protest was dominated by environmental activists.

    Participation of women and ethnic minorities
    -1997- 120 women in the House of Commons and 102 of them representing the Labour party, yet they were labeled “Blair’s Babes” because of their lack of willingness to step out of line.
    -Rise of women in the new Scottish Parliament.
    -Ethnic minorities have lagged behind that of women:  3 black MP’s in the 1997 election.
    Democratic Innovations
    -Political participation is also changing in response to various democratic innovations.
    -Citizens’ jury: Innovations like citizens’ juries are a top-down form of participation-they tend to be initiated by government or policy making organizations rather than citizens themselves.

    Election Participation
    -Forms of political participation are changing more dramatically with electronic means of communication, with the Internet proving a major new forum for political participation.
    -Campaigning organizations are already creating systems that construct emails to appropriate policy-makers for people on the basis of responses to certain political questions.
    -Illegal protest groups also find the Internet useful.
    -Technological developments also enable citizens to participate in governmental activity, as wee as to rail against it.
    -However, demand for government transactions on the Internet is much greater than the supply that the Blair government is providing.

    Social capital: rise or fall?
    -Social capital, as defined by Robert Putman, is features of social life—networks, norms, and trust—that enable participants to act together to pursue share objectives.
    -Social capital is reminiscent of “civic culture” characterized by high levels of social trust, civic organization, and political participation. (Yet this upward trend in political participation observed by Hall has seemed to decline.)
    -A trend absent from the social capital debate is the dramatically rising use of the Internet as a forum for political participation.
     
     

    Ch. 11: Helen Margetts, "Political Participation and Protest"
    by Krista Leachman, 2003

    -In Britain today, political participation and especially voting are down. For the future, they
    say electronic devices and the internet were going to be the major influences of political behavior.

    Voting and the increasing plurality of political parties in Britain

    -1997 general election saw turnout decline -went from 77.7 per cent in 1992 to 71.5 per cent
    -across English councils dropped an overall average of 30 per cent -voters showed enthusiasm for Scottish Parliament and devolution -voters for certain parties has risen

    Protest and Demonstration

    -Involvement with political institutions and party membership, political protest, demonstration
    and even violence have continued to increase since the dramatic upsurge in single issue protest
    activity and unconventional forms of political participation observed by Evans.
    -First half of 90's, political protest and sustained political activity were dominated by
    environmental activism, particularly focused on roads and the countryside.
    -fox hunting was when the issue around disparate interests consolidated

    Participation of Women and Ethnic and Minorities

    -The gains for social representation made in the 1997 election, when 120 women entered the
    House of Common, 102 representing the Labour Party, were followed by general disappointment
    with the new intake of women, disparagingly termed "Blair's babes" by the media for their lack
    of willingness to step out of line.
    -Outside England, women's representation received a boost in the elections to the new Scottish
    Parliament where women account for 40 per cent of Labour MSPs.
    -Black political mobilization also had a low profile and parliamentary representation of ethnic
    minorities has lagged behind that of the women.

    Democratic Innovations

    -Innovations like citizens' juries are a "top-down" form of participation-that is, they to be
    initiated by government or policy-making organization organizations rather than by citizens themselves.
    Initiatives were put in place to increase the incorporation of public opinion into policy making.

    Electronic Participation

    -Forms of political participation are changing more dramatically with electronic means of
    communication, with the Internet providing a major new forum for political participation.
    -The internet and email open new windows for political participation.

    Social capital: Rise or Fall?

    -Conceptual discussion of the basis for political participation revolved around the notion of
    social capital, defined by Robert Putman as features of social life- networks, norms and trust-
    that enable participants to act together to pursue shared objectives.
    -Social capital is evidenced by regular contact between individuals beyond the family,
    participation in common endeavours and trust in social associations and networks.
    -The newer environmental groups rely on symbolic action rather than mass mobilization for their effectiveness.
    -Another trend absent from the social capital debate is the dramatically rising use of the
    Internet as a forum for political participation.

    Conclusion

    -Constitutional change emerges as the key driver for political participation at the beginning
    of the twenty-first century.
     
     

    Dunleavy 11 - Participation & Protest
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003

         Conventional forms of political participation down
              political protest, demonstartion and violence are on a upward trend
                   carries out by diverse interest
              voting for certain political parties has risen
                   hish enthusiasm for Scootish devolution
         Poliltiical protest has increased due to a rise in single-issue protest activity
              usee to be dominated by environmentalist
         Debate over existance of feminist movemnet in Britian
              small participation of womem in Enlgand
              in Scotland, 40% of women elected to new parliamnet
         Black parliamentary representation is low and behind women
         Political participation due to democratic changes
              Citizen Juries
                   12-16 members of public selected to represent cross-section of community
              People's Panels
                   members are onsulted on how public services are delivered
         Electronics are changinf participations
              internet allows for new political participation
                   citizens can participate in gov't activity

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    12: Elizabeth Frazer:  "Citizenship and Culture"
    Adena Cosby 2003
    Another version below

    1) Models of Citizenship
    a) Conservative citizenship:

    i) The identity of ‘consumer’ – people’s rights, public agencies that supplied goods and services to them.
    ii) Individual self-reliance – self sufficiency in the provision of health, social insurance, education and housing.
    iii) Kinship and family responsibilities – responsibilities to neighbors and other members of ‘the community’.
    iv) British Nationality – the right to hold a British passport and to reside within the UK, and the obligation to be patriotic.
    b) New Democratic Citizenship:
    i) Civil associations and their members – proper participants in the government, their needs must be taken into account, and their voices must play a part in decision making.
    ii) Communities – important ethical and political principle that people are fundamentally related to each other.  Being involved in these communities improves neighborhoods, reduction of crime, delivery of welfare services, housing, and education.
    iii) Multi-cultural society – is when one encompasses many different ways of life and social identities.  “Difference within unity, and identity in difference.”  The idea of respect for each person.
    iv) Political power should be devolved – regions, cities, and neighborhoods should have some form of their own power to make the best decisions.


    2) Culture and Political Culture
    a) Culture can be defined as a distinct realm of life that both biologically and physically tied to politics since a culture is what influences ideas on how a government should be ran.
    b) “we are not citizens, but subjects” – the nature of the British constitution.  When people assert their rights, they tend to be on shakier ground then they would be here in the U.S.
    c) A centralization of political power that grew during the Conservative administrations.  Along with a shift of governmental power to individuals and bodies that may not be democratically accountable.
    d) Declines:

    i) Democratic political engagement
    ii) In voting, many people only few voting as a political activity they engage in, although UK election turnouts are respectable.
    e) The British society is diverse, it includes Irish, English, Welsh, and Scots people.  There are patterns in social classes, age groups, and ethnic and religious groups.  They are also trying to emphasize the citizenship of gays and lesbians as well as reforming policies for women.
    f) For the youth, education on citizenship and teaching democracy in schools is a governmental policy.

    Dunleavy 12: "Citizenship and Culture"
    Krista Leachman Fall 2003

    -culture refers to aspects of social life to do with aesthetics (or judgements of whats beautiful), values and the way these relate to typical patterns of interaction and association between individuals
    The Death and Funeral of Diana; Princess of Wales
    -died Aug 31,1997- press coverage extraordinary
    -prime minister referred to her as “the people’s princess”
    -royal family was criticized
    -response and comment to her death was very significant
    Models of Citizenship
    -vague ideas of citizenship
    -citizenship is not to be distinguished from nationality
    -conservative citizenship
    -identity of a “consumer”
    -individual self reliance
    -kinship and family responsibilities
    -British nationality
    -new domestic citizenship
    -civil associations and their members are proper participants in govt.
    -communities are an important focus for policy development and administration
    -a multi-cultural society encompassing and incorporating many different ways of life and social identities is possible and desirable
    -social, cultural, and personal differences are consistent with political unity and with social cohesion
    -political power should be devolved
    -debates about citizenship
    Cultural and Political Culture
    -if individuals think of themselves above all as consumers, there lives will be centered on commodity consumption
    -critics concerned about centralization of political power
    -govt.’s agenda wants to emphasize the citizenship of gay men and lesbians to address inequality of civil rights
    Citizenship and Political Culture in Labour Government Policy
    -“joined up govt.”
    -changes in culture require non legislative levers
    -rights, freedoms, and diversity
    -importance of multi-cultural values
    -EHCR into British law
    -citizenship and migration
    -govt.’s approach connected with immigration and asylum by ministers
    -community
    -The Blairite notion of “Third Way” emphasizes collective group power.

    Dunleavy 12: Citizenship and Culture
    Tiffany Tolbert, 2003.

  • When Labour took power people believed there would be legal reform in the area of citizenship

  • · Many link citizenship reform to a need for change in British political culture
    · In the context of the British political system and constitution, citizenship is inconsistent
    · Conservatives supported citizenship during the 1980s and 1990s.
    o Associated it with a range of social roles and institutions
    § Identity of consumers
    § Individual self-reliance
    § Family responsibilities
    § Nationality
    · New Democratic Citizenship
    o Various organizations developed a new views of politics and citizenship
    § Features
    · Civil associations and members are proper participants in government
    · Communities are an important focus for policy development and administration
    · Multi-cultural society that bring as many different ways of life that are possible
    · Political power is devolved
    · Culture and Political Culture
    o The status of business and market exchange can very from one culture to another
    § Ideas about government are culturally viable
    o Recent concern has been about the market-oriented society of conservatives in the 80s and 90s
    § Individuals think of themselves as consumers and cultural lives based on consumption
    · They leave the upkeep of the legal system in the hands of politicians and judges
    § Democratic theorists say that citizens must be involved in political decision-making just as they are involved in their economic decision
    o There is evidence to the decline in democratic political involvement
    § Voting is the only political activity they engage in
    · Rights, Freedoms and Diversity
    o Discussion emphasizes the importance of multi-cultural values, racism awareness, cultural diversity and racial harmony
    o Problems in the pursuit of rights, freedoms and diversity have been revealed
    § Symbolic power of laws is every bit as important as their substance
    § Harassment and intolerance are a persuasive social phenomena
    § Attempt to implement the Employment Relations Bill as an answer to discrimination was rejected because it was thought to be the responsibility of the department of education and employment
    · Community
    o Language of community is prominent in Labour government communication
    o “New Deal for Communities”
    § Program to support locally organized projects by voluntary organizations, public agencies, local authorities, businesses and local people to deal with issues of crime, employment and environment
    Ch.12: Citizenship and Culture
                                By: Marie Wilkerson, 2003

    -There are competing notions of 'citizenship', however, and one aim is to analyze what ministers
    and their supporters, interested groups and the general public mean by this concept.
    -'Culture' refers to aspects of social life to do with aesthetics (or judgments of what's beautiful),
    values and the way these relate to typical patterns of interaction and association between
    individuals
    The Death and Funeral of Diana; Princess of Wales
    -The princes died August 31,1997. The funeral took place on September 6, 1997. The press
    coverage was extraordinary.
    -The prime minister set a particular tone with his address in the British media. He referred to her
    as “the people's princess”
    -The Princess' appeal and commitment to cultural diversity were also much commented on.
    Some of her best friends were gay people.
    -Commentators agreed that Diana's life and death had modeled important political themes,
    including the intertwining of personal and domestic life with public matters and politics and the
    integration of marginal people into public life.
    Models of Citizenship
    -Vague ideas of citizenship
      *Citizenship is anomalous in mainstream British political culture; Citizenship is hard to
        distinguish from nationality.
    -Conservative citizenship
      *The identity of a “consumer”: emphasized peoples rights
      *Individual self-reliance: the language was used by some Conservative politicians
      *Kinship and family responsibilities: to and lesser extent, responsibilities to neighbors
      *British nationality: the right to hold a British passport and reside in the UK
    -New domestic citizenship
      *Civil associations and their members are proper participants in government.
      *Communities are an important focus for policy development and administration.
      *A multi-cultural society encompassing and incorporating many different ways of life
        and social identities is possible and desirable.
      *political power should be devolved
    -Debates about citizenship
    Cultural and Political Culture
    -'Culture' can be considered a distinct realm of life, distinguished from both biological and
      physical constraints, and from pure economics interactions and motivations, even though
      all of these factors interact.
    -If individuals think of themselves above all as consumers, there lives will be centered on
     commodity consumption.
    -The British constitution has some clear features that have been identified by many critics
      and policy-makers as constraints on energy and vitality in political life.
    -The government's agenda wants to emphasize the citizenship of gay men and lesbians to
    address inequality of civil rights.
    Citizenship and Political Culture in Labour Government Policy
     -It is too early to say whether this normative model of citizenship, culture and politics will be
    genuinely realized in practice.
     -The government itself seems to be echoing a message that has become critical political and
    social theory.
     -The use of the language of citizenship and democratic political culture is notable in its own right
    for a least two reasons.
        1. The language used in current policy debate shapes future policy debate.
        2. The ideals of citizenship and democratic political culture can then be used as
            yardsticks against government.

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    Ch. 13: Economic Policy
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003 (another is below)
    -four paradoxes
    1- concerns the freedom of manoeuvre available to Labour administration
    2- Labour’s traditional commitment to the welfare state
    3- administration committed in some policy areas to decentralization and devolution has presided over a growth of Treasury
    power and influence quite unprecedented in the postwar era
    4-involves external economic policy making

    -Policy Rules: limiting the room for manoeuvre
    -The treasury under Brown has moved to codify and consolidate an economic framework that seeks deliberately to limit the
    room for manoeuvre in large areas of policy.
    -The Chancellor announced he was ceding operational control of setting interests rates to the Bank of England.

    -The Policy Record
    -Success will be measured by whether inflation has remained at the target level
    -Policy Debates: accountability, representativeness, and transparency
    -The MPC as a whole is accountable for the achievement of the inflation target, and failure to achieve this triggers a letter from
    the governor of the Bank to the Chancellor.
    -The bank is required to report to the House of Commons Treasury Select Committee.
    -MPC criticized for its lack of representatives.

    Fiscal Policy Rules  -Code for Fiscal Stability
    Fiscal Policy Issues
    -These politically useful headline-grabbing reductions hide an underlying rise in the proportion of GDP taken in taxation as a
    whole.
    -Public Spending Control and Targeting
    -Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR)- example by governance by policy review and a subterfuge to cover the failure to
    introduce a more radical spending programme than Labour had inherited.
    -Continuity and Change
    -The challenge facing the Chancellor and Chief Secretary Andrew Smith is to cope with rising demands for increased
    expenditure at a time when the perception is of a significant war chest available for use.
    -The Treasury under Brown
    -managed competition
    -Blair popularized the third way, acceptable to the middle class and middle England, Brown the engine of economic and social
    policy reforms giving substance to claim to philosophical cohesion.
    -What is different now is the expand of treasury  into direct policy making and agenda control in a way that does not reflect
    accepted structural responsibilities but the interests of its Chancellor.
    -Major’s “Opt-out”, which allows the UK to choose if and when it wants to join the euro, has not reduced the controversy.

    Dunleavy 13 - Economic Policy
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003

         Economic policy of new Labour has four paradoxes
              freedom of manoevre available to a Labour administratin
              Labours commitment ot the welfare state
              administration committed to decentralization nad devolution has presided over a growth of tresury power and influence
              external policy making
         Treasury under Gordon Brown has moved to codify and consolidate and econmoic structure that will limit any room for  manouevre
              rules have replaced descretion
                   reason - to promiote stability and transparency in order to regain market confidence
         Labour Cahncellor gave up the power to set interest rates to the Bank of England
              Bank was reconstructed - new Monetary Policy Committee created
         Debates have been raised about the operations of the MPC
              British more similar to US Federal Reserve Bank than to hte EU model

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    Dunleavy 14: Welfare Policy
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003

    -The Policy Planning Framework

    -The earliest evidence was the commitment to remaining within the overall public spending limits of the previous administration
    for the first two years of office. This meant no immediate increase in taxes to finance new public expenditure.

    -Savings from this were used to finance health, education, and transportation.

    -The Third Way

    -between the alternatives of state socialism and the free market which dominated policy development over the past century

    -endorsement of the need for social policy and social spending

    -positive- endorsement of a mixed economy of welfare services and the partnership

    -what is being promoted is a revitalization of the old notion of civil society within which all partners and citizens have mutual
    interests and obligations in securing local social and economic progress

    -link between citizenship and welfare has always been a central feature of welfare provision in modern societies

    -Rebuilding Public Services

    -Health- direct their initial concerns to making the NHS work better within existing managerial constraints, by focusing upon
    practical issues such as cutting wait lists and securing additional spending

    -Education-cut class sizes, increase investment in building repair, reward successful teachers and extend access

    -Social Services- shift the role of social service departments from one providers to one enablers, working to provide
    appropriate packages of support for consumers

    -Housing- public housing has become a residual form of tenure

    -Social Security

    -Welfare to work and social exclusion

    -included the minimum wage and the Working Families Tax Credit (WFTC)

    -social exclusion is taken to include problems of participation and access to services as well as lack of money and is viewed by the Treasury and others as a dynamic phenomenon spreading deprivation across the life cycle.

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    Ch. 15: Andrew Jordan, "Environmental Policy"
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003 (another is below)

    Tony Blair -touring the world preaching the merits of environmental protection to fellow world leaders
    -sustainable development is now the dominant leitmotif of environmental policy in Britain, the EU and much of the world
    -Environmentalism metamorphoses into sustainability
    -The policies adopted tended to be reactive rather than proactive, and sectoral rather
    than integrated across policy domains.
    -Public opinion in Britain is far from united on environmental issues, being strongest among the affluent, well-educated
    middle classes and weakest among poorer social groups.

    -Environmental Policy Integration
    -environmental thinking must be permanently integrated into all areas of policy
    -“greening government”
    -sustainable development as the main organizing principle of modern environmental policy the world over
    -international obligations continue to provide the main impetus to British environmental policy
    -three main environmental agreements on climate change, biodiversity  conservation, and sustainable development signed
    at Rio, have intensified the need for inter-departmental coordination
    -The politics of the dispute cry out for joined up policy solutions.
    -Barriers to “joined-up” policy making
    -Of all the barriers to “joined-up thinking”, one of the most fundamental is the basic organizational structure of
    government.

    -Transport: a policy mess?
    -need for interdepartmental coordination than transport policy
    -Conflicting Policy Paradigms
    -A “new deal” for transport? – new money for public transport, stronger local authority powers and provision for
    charging on parking and congestion, many of the most difficult issues were dropped, devolved to local authorities or
    required enabling legislation.

    -Energy: the dangers of serendipitous policy- making
    -affordable energy prices
    -jobs
    -environmental goals
    -sustainability is being thwarted by bureaucratic squabbles and the short term demand for unsustainable consumption
    -Labour has found it increasingly difficult to coordinate policy across the many strands of social, environmental, and economic activity in pursuit of sustainability.
     


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    Ch. 16: Joanna Spear, "Foreign and Defense Policy"
    By: Krista Leachman, 2003 (others below)

    -In Europe, the changed international environment has spurred discussion of greater foreign
    policy cooperation.
    -The current international environment generates opportunities.

    Labour's Foreign Policy Intentions
    -Post Cold War- pledge to increase the commitment to development by creating a department
    devoted to international development issues
    -campaign rhetoric raised expectations that a Labour government would institute greater
    controls over British arms exports

    Multiple Actors in Foreign Policy
    -Foreign and Commonwealth Office
    -Ministry of Defence
    -Department for International Development
    -Parliament and governments can also pay a key role in foreign policy
    -non-governmental actors can also have a profound impact on foreign policy making or its
    implementation
    -several elements of what was traditionally British foreign policy are now made and implemented
    by EU institutions
    -the complexity of the foreign policy process and the multiplicity of actors who can play a
    role constrain the ability of the executive to control policy in a complex world

    Policy Dilemmas: Arms Trade Issues
    -The tension between sales and restrictions has led to institutional conflict within the
    government over policy implementation.
    -one of the most vaunted achievements of the new arms transfer policy was a speedy move to ban
    anti-personnel landmines

    The Strategic Defence Review
    -commitment to consult different groups with an interest in British foreign and defence policy,
    an approach designed to bring new ideas and greater openness into the policy-making process
    -concern about the decision to cut the size of the Territorial Army and the consequences for
    "home defence"
    -issue that was avoided was a possible European defence identity

    Continue crises with Iraq
    -reoccurring problem- Blair government has been Iraqi challenges to the UNSCOM inspection
    regime imposed after Iraq's defeat in the Gulf Conflict.

    Kosovo
    -the conflict in Kosovo has led many to call for a substantive EU defence force

    Conclusion: Ethical Issues and Measures of Success
    -EU code of conduct exists, there is a total British landmine ban, the process has become more
    transparent and so on
    -ethical concerns have informed British "reactive diplomacy", particularly during the Kosovo crisis.
     
     

    Ch. 16: Joanna Spear "Foreign and Defence Policy"
    by Jarret Layson, 2003

    Introduction
         Post-cold war period presents challenges for British foreign policy makers
         Bipolar system has given way to a multi-polarity and situation of flux
         the issue of European vs. an Atlanticist identity is one key challenge
         US has become more reticent about internat'l involvement which allows for isolationism
         to gain currency
         current internat'l environment generates oppurtunities-British policy-makers can take a
         wider range of values into account which allows Blair's gov't to introduce "ethical"
         concerns into foreign policy

    Labour's Foreign Policy Intentions
         Labour's '97 manifesto promised a review of British defence policy and a pledge to
         increase the commitment to development by creating a department devoted to
         international development issues
         campaign rhetoric raised expectations that Labour gov't would institute greater controls
         over British arms exports
         According to Blair the driving force behind the Third Way is globalization which can be
         defined as the intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across
         borders
         An important demension is way in which different national economies are becoming part
         of a global network-linked to economic competiveness issues
         Third Way is are regardes as the best way for a political economy to function in
         globalized market
         According to Blair "our task is to build a new doctrine of international community,
         defined by common rights and shared responsibilities"
         The lack of clear foreign policy agenda meant Labour foreign policy would be "reactive
         diplomacy", responding to events rather than implementing clear policy
         Foreign Secretary Robin Cook's mission statement was four goals-three were both
         vague and uncontroversial which promoted security and prosperity for Britain while
         seeking to enhance the quality of life-the fourth caused controversy saying that Britain
         would work to spread values of human rights

    Multiple Actors in Foreign Policy

         three lead departments in foreign policy making are the Foreign and Commonwealth
         Office, the Ministry of Defence, and the new Department for International Development
         alongside these three there are other parts of gov't-Major launched a treasury campaign
         to decrease the debt burden on the world's poorest countries-alongside this initiative the
         DFID has sought to re-orient EU aid policies towards the world's poorest countries
         in addition to wide range of government departments there are also times when
         Parliament and the courts can play a key role: ex: the Pinochet decision
         Non-governmental actors also have a profound impact: ex: British Aerospace
         undermining of gov't intentions to create a unified European defence industry
         Also several elements of what was traditionally British foreign policy are now made and
         implemented by EU institutions
         the complexity of the foreign policy process and the multiplicity of actors constrain the
         ability of the executive to control policy

    Policy Dilemmas: Arms Trade Issues
         The arms trade is the key test of the "ethical demension" to foreign policy
         labour faces tension between desire for arms trasfer restraint and the best interests of the
         British defence industial base
         labour produced eight policy pledges in the run-up to '97 election for responsible arms
         trade: included no licences for arms to regimes that us the for internal repression or
         agression, pressure for European Register of Arms Exports, and work for the
         introduction of a European Code of Conduct
         These pledges demand little of the gov't-four rely on multi-lateral action, two were
         expected and not out of line with public opinion, and one merely extends existing British policy
         the tension between sales and restriction has led to institutional conflict
         one of the most vaunted achievments of the new arms transfer policy was a speedy move
         to ban anti-personnel landmines

    The Strategic Defence Review

  •      labour launched a strategic review of defence policy, which was the first post war attempt

  •      the Strategic Defence Review entitled "modern forces for a modern world" and would
         provide a coherent defence policy for Britain until 2015
  •      one innovation was a commitment to consult different groups with an interest in British

  •      foreign and defence policy-bring new ideas and openess
  •      need for rapid, flexible deployment led to development of Joint Rapid Reaction Force to

  •      pool resources and units from all three services to fulfil requirement for flexibility and speed

    Continuing Crises with Iraq

  •      recurring problem for Blair gov't has been Iraqi challenges to UNSCOM inspection

  •      regime imposed after Gulf conflict
  •      UN resolution stipulated that Iraq must permit the destruction or removal of its weapons

  •      of mass destruction-Iraq persued policy of obstruction
  •      Iraqi's challenges to UNSCOM are designed to undermine the unanimity of the UN

  •      security council-if unanimity broke it would mean the end of sanctions
  •      two periods of heightened tension-Feb 1998 and Nov-Dec 1998

  •  

     

    Kosovo
         1999 conflict in Kosovo has a long lineage
         conflict interesting on number of levels: 1)little serious planning for what happens if
         bombing didn't work  2)European unity held throughout the conflict  3)Blair had high
         international profile as the leader most committed to acting over Kosovo  4)the conflict
         has led many to call for a substantive EU defence force  5)conflict shows the extent to
         which the traditional notions of left and right are challenged by events in post cold war
         internat'l system-saw significant shifts from cold war stances  6)one effect was to banish
         the old perception that Labour was unwilling to use military power effectively

    Conclusion

  •      Five factors that suggest real shift in British foreign policy under Labour:
  •      British foreign and defence policy under Blair is showing that the gov't is prepared to use

  •      traditional tools (military power and diplomacy) to fulfil progressive agenda with issues
         such as human rights
  •      Attempts to institute openness in the foreign and defence policy process have certainly been seen
  •      Blair has good relations with Clinton and is well recieved in Europe which seems to be a
  •      "best of both worlds" conclusion on the issue of balancing relations with Europe and the US
  •      increasing interest in a European defence identity present in Britain

  • Dunleavy 16 - Foreign & Defense Policy
    by Tiffany Tolbert, 2003

         1997 Labour manifesto promised a review of the British defence policy
              also department created to deal with international development issues
              foreign secretary developed mission statement with 4 goals
                   promote security
                   prosperity for Britian while increasing quality of life
                   would work through internatioanla bodies to spread values of human rights and democracy
         There are many makers of foreign policy
              foreign and commonwealth office
              ministry of defence
              department for international development
         Foreign policy mostly made by actors, govenrmental and international
              Parliament and courts play a role sometime
              several elements of foreign policy now made and implemented by EU
         Arms trade is the ethical queation of foreign policy
              tension betweeb sales & restrictions has led to conflict within the government over policy
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    Ch. 17: Andrew Gamble, "Policy Agendas in a Multi-level Polity"
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003

    -The policy process is being transformed as governments grapple with profound challenges arising from globalization, European integration, devolution and administrative reform.
    -extent of change should not be exaggerated
    -The national governance approach applies to the UK state insights drawn from the analysis of policy processes in other kind of multi-level polities, notably those found in federal systems such as the US.
    -Transnational governance, drawing on perspectives in international political economy, approaches the problem from the other end.
    -Setting agendas: Agency
    -This is the world of elites, professional bodies, experts, think tanks and policy communities, which often seek to define the government agenda in their own way, and resist the issues and still more the solutions put forward in the more open forum of civil society.

    -Setting agenda: Structure
    -Structure-centered explanations put much less weight on the role of individual or collective actors in influencing
    agendas, and instead focus on the institutional constraints which determine how state elites select some policies and exclude others.

    -Policy Competences
    -For Britain most constituent issues are now decided at supranational levels in the various treaties and agreements on security, trade, currency, and the environment, which British governments have signed.
    -Distributive issues remain very important at the national level, because the British government is still responsible for many major spending programmes.
    -The EU is not developing into a “United States of Europe” organized on federal lines, rather it consists of a set of
    supranational institutions created to fulfil particular purposes and functions.

    -Parties and Governments
    -One view of political parties is that they are above all policy entrepreneurs, aggregating interests in civil society,
    assembling coalitions and drawing up manifestos on which they appeal for support.
    -A second view of the role of political parties also ties them to nation states.
    -Some of the complexities of contemporary policy-making can be seen in two issues that have be very high profile for the government: genetically modified food and the welfare of the countryside.

    -Interests
    -The effectiveness of interests in shaping policy agendas in a multilevel polity depends on their ability to organize, either through campaigns and movements in civil society or through “insider” strategies.
    -The imbalance between labour and capital in terms of political influence is not something which Labour has tried to reverse in any serious way.

    -Ideas
    -Ideas have a major role in shaping policy agendas. Assumptions and organizing concepts play an important part in how agendas and issues are constructed and defined.
    -Ideas are used in many different ways in the policy process.
    -The marketplace of ideas, especially with the aid of the Internet, has become international, and successfully policy ideas are copied and transferred quickly between states.
    -Many think tanks still tend to mainly focused on national decision making centres, although this is the beginning to
    change with the development of a multi-level polity.

    Ch. 17: Policy Agendas in a Multi-Level Polity

                                            By: Marie Wilkerson
    Introduction
    -The policy process in the UK is being transformed as governments grapple with profound challenges arising from
    globalization, European integration, devolution and administrative reform.
    -The changes have different logics, they operate a different speeds, and often they conflict.
    -Multilevel polity is emerging in place of the old narratives
    Setting Agendas: agency
    -When thinking about policy agendas it is important to distinguish between policy agenda of civil society and the policy agenda of government.
        *The first is a broad concept that includes issues put forward to the decision-making authorities with recommendation for some form of public opinion.
        *The second is a narrower definition that refers to those issues that form part of the
          agenda of specific government departments or agencies, and thereby  become part
          of the policy process and policy implementation.
    Setting agendas: structure
    -Structure-centered explanations put much less weight on the role of individual or collective actors in influencing agendas, and instead focus on the institutional constraints which determine how state elates select some  policies and exclude others.
    -Another kind of structualist argument emphasizes the role of a process like globalization in setting constraints on the policy process within nation-states
    Policy competences
    -Britain is no longer involved in one master policy process and policy agenda, but in many.
    -Lowi distinguishes four major types of policy
        *constituent policies which determine the fundamental rules and priorities of the
          political system
        *redistributive policies which challenge the structural distribution of costs and benefits
          between citizens and regions
        *distributive policies which allocate resources through government-funded programs
        *regulatory policies, which provide rules governing particular sectors.
    Parties and government
    -View political parties that they are above all policy entrepreneurs, aggregating interests in civil society, assembling coalitions and drawing up manifestos on which they appeal for support.
    -The role of the civil service is to provide advice and support to ministers to help them implement their manifesto commitments.
    -A second view of the role of parties ties them to nation-states.
    Interests
    -The effectiveness of interests in shaping policy agenda in a multi-level polity depends on their ability to organize, either through campaigns and movements in civil society or through 'insider' strategies.
    -This imbalance between labour and capital in terms of political influence is not something which Labour has tried to reverse in any serious way.
    Ideas
    -Ideas have a major role in shaping policy agendas.  Assumptions and organizing concepts play an important part in how agendas and issues are constructed and defined.
    -Ideas are used in many different ways in the Policy process.
    -Public intellectuals like Hayek or Keynes articulate broad principles for the conduct of public policy, and identify issues which should be part of the policy agenda.

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