Nivola, #28 Alexander Hamilton, Federalist
by Walt Cobb, Spring 2016 (others below)
- Outlines the design of the Presidency according
to the Constitution
- Executive Authority is to be vested in a single
- President is to be different than a Monarch
- Compares the Presidency to the British Monarchy
and the Governor of New York on multiple occasions
I. President will be elected every 4 years
- President is eligible for reelection
as often as the people deem him worthy
II. President can be impeached from office
- Presidency is not hereditary unlike the British
- Governor of New York is elected every
- Liable to be impeached, tried, and convicted
for Treason, Bribery, etc.
III. President has the power to Return a Bill Passed
by Congress for Reconsideration
- Whereas British Monarch is sacred and inviolable
- However, if congress returns the bill
it becomes law
IV. Commander- In- Chief
- Authority over Army and Navy
V. President may grant Reprieves and Pardons
- Unlike monarch, the President cannot declare
- Only has control over militia if they are called
up for national service whereas the Gov. of NY and British Monarch have
control over entire military in their territory
- Cannot pardon impeachment
VI. President has the power to make Treaties
- Governor of NY has the power to pardon in all
cases including impeachment, only exceptions are treason and murder
- Only with the advice and consent of
the senate provided 2/3rds of the Senators present concur
- Monarch of GB is the sole diplomatic figure
of the country and needs no consent to make treaties
This Federalist Paper ‘explains the constitutional
design of the presidency’.
by Chrystine D. Lake, Fall 2008
All of these responsibilities are highlighted by the
ways in which the system protects the people against the monarchial power
of the British King and how there are established limitations within the
judicial and legislative branches that assure them against their government.
Hamilton emphasizes the ‘limitations on presidential
power and the extent to which presidential actions will depend on congressional
First, the executive will be a single individual,
who is to be elected for four years and can be re-elected if the people
find him worth.
Second, the president can be impeached and tried on
the conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and be removed
Third, the President possesses veto power which can
be overturned by the legislative branch.
Fourth, he is the Commander in chief of the arm and
navy, and the militia of the several States which can be called into the
service of the union.
Fifth, he holds the power to pardon and reprieve.
Sixth, he has the power to make treaties—with the
advice and consent of the Senate.
Seventh, the President can appoint and receive ambassadors,
public ministers, judges, and general all offices of the U.S. established
28: Alexander Hamilton, "Federalist 69"
by Rick Riley, 2008
I. Hamilton’s purpose for Federalist 69
A. Opponents to the Constitution
claim that the proposed Head of State (the President) would be as powerful
as the King of England. (Americans had just fought to free themselves from
the rule of that King, they didn’t want another King.)
B. Many Americans feared Constitution
would give to much power to a smaller number of individuals and the National
C. Hamilton sells the proposed executive
to the American people as an executive with limited power and contrasts
the President to the King of England and even State Governors that had
less limits on their power than the President did.
II. Powers of the President according to
A. Can stop
a bill unless Congress approves it w/ ¾ vote.
in chief of army, navy (at all times), and militias of the states (at certain
C. Pardons and
reprieves in all cases except Impeachment
D. Can convene
both houses of Congress in extraordinary circumstances
Commission all officers of the United States.
measures of expediency to Congress
G. can nominate Ambassadors,
Public Ministers, Supreme Court Justices and any other officers not mentioned
in the Constitution W/ Advice and Consent of Senate.
III. President V. King of England
A. King: Hereditary,
Sacred, not questionable, rules for whole lifetime. President: up
for election every 4 years, subject to Impeachment, amendable to personal
punishment and disgrace.
Can command and Raise Armies and declare war. President: Commander in chief
but can only fund army w/ Congressional Approval and cannot declare war.
has vast control of the economy. President: Cannot make rules for
Head and Supreme Governor of Nat’l Church. President: No spiritual
E. King: Can dissolve
Parliament for as long as he wishes and when he wishes. President:
Can only dissolve Congress in certain situations of disagreement about
the time of adjournment.
F. King has unlimited
IV. Powers Held by State Governors and not
by the President.
Easier to Impeach President than Gov.s of NY., VA., Del.
Gov. Of NY could pardon in Cases of Impeachment (but not in Murder or treason.)
President cannot pardon an impeachment.
C. Gov of NY can
dissolve legislature more often than the President.
D. Gov. of NY can
appoint with consent of a Council of himself and four state senators.
President- Advice and consent of Senate.
V. Conclusion: President obviously has
less power than King of England. Has fewer limits to his power that
state Governors in some respects but has more limitations in some respects.
Nivola, #29 Aaron Wildavsky, The Two Presidencies:
Wildavsky argues that there are two presidencies:
by Chrystine D. Lake, Fall 2008
Wildavsky argues that it takes a great crisis for
a President to be successful in domestic politics; therefore Presidents
fail more often on the domestic front than on the international front.
one which deals with domestic affairs and one that
deal with defense and foreign policy.
Being more effective in foreign affairs stems from
Congressional power over the domestic agenda, when he usually finds the
support he needs in the foreign arena.
Also, there is more persistence and clarity within
the domestic arena—Presidents can be either for or against a specific issue
and only modest changes can be made to them.
Contrastingly, the world is always changing and their
policies towards it are always changing, therefore Presidents have to focus
more of their energy there.
Wildavsky argues that ‘some analysts say that the
success of Presidents in controlling foreign policy decisions is largely
illusory.’ It is only achieved by anticipating the actions of others and
keeping from proposing anything they would think to oppose.
In relation to this, the influence that the U.S. holds
on the international stage helps Presidents to be more successful, creating
a higher priority for American executives because their decisions there
are considered irreversible and important.
In contrast to this, domestic policies are considered
narrow and experimental.
The difference is also noted by the amount of power
the executive is given in dealing with foreign affairs versus domestic
(Congress holds much more power in domestic issues, while the president
has war and negotiation powers when dealing with other countries).
The public also depends more on the President for
foreign affairs than they are on domestic issues, while Congress and interest
groups hold influence over domestic issues.
29: Aaron Wildavsky, "Two Presidencies"
He also claims that the stakes are a lot higher on
the international stage, and because of this, domestic issues can fall
to domestic organizations.
(Woojung Lee, 2002), another is below
Nivola 29: Wildavsky, “Two Presidencies”
Two presidencies in U. S.
One for domestic affairs and the other is for
and foreign policy.
When there is problem with
Domestic policy: need to get congressional support
Foreign affairs: can almost always get support for
Domestic v. Foreign policy
Relatively simple to make minor adjustments vs. cannot
or do not know how to alter since the world has become a highly intractable
place with a whirl of forces.
The Record of Presidential Control
From the end of 30’s, Presidents have often been
in their domestic programs, i.e. F. Roosevelt, Eisenhower, Kennedy
In foreign policy, there has not been
a single major issue on which Presi. have failed.
From 1948-64, shows that Presi. have significantly
records in foreign and defense matters than in domestic policies.
World Events and Presidential Resources
How does the Presi. manage his control of foreign
and defense policy?
It does not reside in the constitutional
power, has been changed since 1945.
The awareness of the possibility of nuclear war
Vastly increase our rate of interaction with most
The increasing speed of events in the int’nal
The perception that decisions in foreign affairs
The Power to Act
As Commander-in Chief to move troops: once
they have committed American forces, it is difficult for Congress or anyone
else to alter the course of events.
Can use executive agreement instead of treaties
Far greater ability to obtain info on abroad
through Dept. of State and Defense.
Competitors for Control of Policy
General public is much more dependent on Presi. in
Pres. Popularity rises after he takes action
in a crisis.
Problem of public opinion
Hard to get operational policy directions
Difficult to interpret
Special Interest Groups
The group structure is weak, unstable, and
thin in foreign policy matters i.e. matters in Africa and Asia
The strongest interest groups are probably the
A self denying ordinance: they do [not] think
it is their job to determine the nation’s defense policies.
The congressional appropriations power has
tended to reduce its effectiveness since the end of WWII.
However, there have been occasion when individual
legislators or committees have been influential.
The modern tech. and int’nal conflict increased
the defense budget.
The military have not been united on any major
matter of defense policy.
Military Industrial Complex
Do not control policy and budgeting decisions,
nor is there much evidence that they actually try.
The State Dept.
Modern Presi. expect the State Dept. to carry out
When the Presi. knew what he wanted, he got it.
The growth of a special WH staff to help expresses
their need for assistance and their refusal to rely completely on the regular
Remain in control of their staff
How complete is the Control?
The success of Presi. in controlling is largely
Anticipated reaction:it is achieved by anticipating
the reactions of others, and eliminating opposite proposals.
The World Influence
The forces concerning the foreign and defense policies
affect the ways in which they calculate their power stakes.
Presi. now expect to pay the high costs themselves
if the world situation deteriorates.
Presi. engaged in world politics are more concerned
with meeting problems on their own terms.
It is worthwhile to organize political activity in
order to affect his agenda.
The best way to convince Presi. to follow a desired
policy is to show that is might work.
By Brady Lamborne, Spring 2008
• The President has two jobs in which he deals
with domestic affairs and with defense and foreign policy.
• The problem with the President’s domestic
policy is that he can’t get congressional support for the programs
• In foreign policy there has not been a single major
issue in which they were serious and determined and not failed which was
the entry into the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, NATO, and the Truman
• On the other hand the President can get support
for the policies that he believes will protect the nation.
• The number of nations with which
the United States has diplomatic relations has increased from 53
in 1939 to 113 in 1966.
• Domestic policy-making is usually based on
adjustments to an existing situation.
• The foreign policy concerns of the President
tend to drive out the domestic policy.
• The importance of foreign affairs to Presidents
is intensified by the increasing speed of events in the international arena.
• Presidents have to be careful therefore
to husband their resources for pressuring future needs because they
can not always count on congressional support.
• The two Presidencies also deal with how the president
deals with the public, congress, military, and the interest groups.
• Presidents don’t always get support from the
public so they have to be careful on what they do in office.
• There Are a Number of Competitors
For the Control of Policy Making.
• The President is expected to pay the costs of his
decisions that he made if the situation of the world is deteriorating away.
• With the President dealing with foreign affairs
the Public is much more involved and concerned with.[domestic]
• There are the Interest Groups that compete
for control in which the strongest competing for control is the
• Congress has not been very effective in policy
since the end of WWII.
• There have been occasionally a number of individual
legislators or committees that have been influential in Congress.
• The Militaries technology and international
conflict has increased a deficit in our defense budget which is not helping
our economy rise.
• The Military Industrial Complex doesn’t
deal with controlling the policy and the budgeting decisions in which there
is really no evidence that proves that they deal with it all.
• The World influence deals with the foreign and
defense policy of the president and at his own power and stakes.
• To convince the president to approve
a policy is show him that it will actually work and is not a waste of time
• To sum it all it up the two Presidencies deals with
how the president toggles between domestic affairs and foreign and defense
policy and what he can and can’t do within these programs.
Richard Neustadt, "The Power to Persuade"
by Alexis Johnson, spring 2010
-“Presidential Power is the power to persuade.”
- Presidents are expected to do much more than
their authority allows them to do.
-Means to influence policy are persuasion
-Not only are Presidents supposed
to persuade Congress, but also the executive branch. A president cannot
simply command things of his aides because they too have ideas.
-“Power is the product of vantage points in government,
together with [the President’s] reputation in the Washington community,
and his prestige outside.”
A President’s Three Sources of Power
How others perceive him and expect to react in various
circumstances. He can have failures, but if these failures form patterns,
it weakens the President.
-Power of the Presidency- The misconception
of power surrounding powers of the President. The only person who can safeguard
this power is the President. Even members of the executive branch have
biases of their own.
-Public Prestige- A President’s
popular support outside Washington. He does not necessarily
watch opinion polls, but rather the public’s opinions of Congress and the
legislation they have presented.
-Because there is an innate
reverence for the office of the Presidency, the President has an increased
power over Congress. If is President is popular, failing to go along with
him can be damaging to members of Congress. Also, more people need favors
from the President, giving him bargaining power.
- A president affects the flow of power, but never
decides alone whether it flows freely or runs dry.
-When he chooses what to say, as well as
how to say it, he does so to dissipate his power.
- Like Madison, Neustadt chooses a pluralist view
explain politics. Under this theory, the powers of government are shared
not separated. Competing factions persuade and argue until policy reaches
what the typical citizen would want.
-In his book, Going Public, Sam Kernell
says that the need for the President to persuade Congress and the executive
branch has been replaced with the need to persuade the public directly.
Nivola, #30 Richard E. Neustadt, "The Power
Due to the limitations of the executive office, the
President must not only rely on their formal authority or partisan loyalty,
they must also possess the power to persuade other government actors, interests
groups, and the public to support their initiatives.
by Chrystine D. Lake, Fall 2008
The Constitution created a government of separate
institutions that share power, not separate power. ‘The separateness of
institutions and the sharing of authority prescribe the terms on which
a president persuades.’
Therefore, the White House authority depends on the
executive’s ability to persuade others that they are doing something for
their sake, in their interests, and for their good.
The executive’s ability to do this is based on his
logic and his charm, as well as the status and authority he harbors.
This puts the President at an advantage for getting
what he wants, but he is still kept in check because the idea of persuasion
is a ‘two-way street’, which leads to bargaining within the political structure.
What happens when the president attempts to persuade
outside of the political system?
This usually allows for the executive to assert his
authority under persuasion; individuals can be met through political party
affiliation, which the president controls influence over.
In foreign policy, persuasion plays a large part seeing
as ‘power is persuasion and persuasion becomes bargaining.’ Pressuring
an ally is a very effective tool in foreign affairs.
What influence does the Executive’s power have in
dealing with the executive branch?
Ideally, the executive would hold complete power over
the executive branch, but history has shown that is sometimes not the case.
The stronger the individual within the branch, the
less effective the President’s power of persuasion appears to be.
Nivola #30 - “The Power to Persuade” by
Richard E. Neustadt (1960)
Maegan McCollum Spring 2008
- “When one man shares authority with another,
but does not gain or lose his job upon the other’s whim, his willingness
to act upon the urging of the other turns on whether he conceives the action
right for him.” The essence of a president’s persuasive task is to convince
these men that what the White House wants of them is what they ought to
do for their sake and on their authority.
- The status and authority the president has add
to his logic and charm.
- Status adds to persuasiveness, authority adds
- Example: Truman urging wage changes on his secretary
of commerce, while the SC was administering the steel mills; Truman’s status
gave him claims to his SC’s loyalty.
- Truman had the advantage: possessing formal
authority to intervene in matters concerning the SC which ranged from jurisdictional
disputes to legislation pending before Congress, and the tenure of the
- Each “power” is a vantage point for him in how
other men use his authority; from veto to appointments, publicity to budgeting,
etc. the White House controls the most encompassing array of vantage points
in the American political system.
- Men in government are aware that at
sometime, to some degree, the doing of their jobs, furthering of their
ambitions, may depend upon the president. Their need for presidential action,
or fear of it, is consistent. Their fear or need is his advantage.
- The power to persuade is the power to bargain. A
president may be far more persuasive than his logic or his charm.
- The men with whom he deals must work with him
until the last day of his term; what the president could do tomorrow gives
him the advantage today. Continuing relationships change “power” into vantage
points in most cases. A president can use their dependence now and later.
- Continuing relationships pull in both ways;
a president depends on the men he persuades, and has to reckon with his
need or fear of them. Their vantage points confront his own.
- Command has limited utility; persuasion becomes
- Example: Little Rock and Eisenhower
- Even in national nominates a president’s advantages
are checked by those of others.
- Influence is even more give-and-take when dealing
with allied governments. Example: Suez affair.
- Power is persuasion and persuasion becomes bargaining.
- Americans instinctively resist the view that
power in the sphere of executive relations resembles power in all others.
- The executive establishment consists of separated
institutions sharing powers.
- The Constitution gives the president the “take-care”
clause and the appointive power; statutes give him central budgeting and
some personnel control
- Agency administrators are responsible to him,
but they are also responsible to Congress, their clients, their staffs,
and themselves. They have five masters; only after those do they owe loyalty
to each other.
- Executive officials are not equally advantaged
in their dealings with a president. The variance is heightened by particulars
of time and circumstance. And when officials lack “powers” or depend upon
the president for status, their counter pressure is limited.
- Any aide who demonstrates to others that he
has the president’s consistent confidence and part in presidential business
will gain business on his own account until he becomes in some sense an
independent chief. Nothing in the Constitution prevents an aide from converting
status into power, even that that is usable against the president.
- The essence of a president’s persuasive task
with congressmen and everyone else “is to induce them to believe that what
he wants of them is what their own appraisal of their own responsibilities
requires them to do in their interest, not his.”
- Because people differ in their views of public
policy, because differences in outlook stem from differences in duty (to
one’s offices, constituents, self) “that task is bound to be more like
collective bargaining than like a reasoned argument….”
- Persuasion deals within the self-interest of
men who have some “freedom to reject what they find counterfeit.”
Nivola, #31 Charles O. Jones, Separating to
Govern-The American Way:
Jones argues that a divided government does not create
the ‘stalemate’ that some claim occurs when the two different parties control
the different branches.
by Chrystine D. Lake, Fall 2008
He does state that the system of elections (which
is essential to the idea of separation of powers) lacks a structural feature
for ensuring partisan unity, but that idea is based on the need to ‘form
a government’, because how can you measure a stalemate?
Passing of significant legislation can be used to
measure stale-mate—but in doing so you find that there is no difference
between a split and unified government in achieving this.
Next, even once a president is elected; it does not
induce unity within the political system, even when the one party wins
both branches and certainly not when the parties share control of three
elected branches because building a support coalition takes a long time
and a lot of effort, but they shift all the time, making it difficult to
establish a consistent unified party.
Jones argues that ‘the agenda includes a series of
basic questions on what government should do, on which government should
do it, and on the capacity of the private sphere to solve public problems.
This debate should not and will not be settled by one party or one institution’.
31: Charles O. Jones, "Separating to Govern:
American Way" (1996?)
Joey Hollis, 2002
-"Democracy is a political system for those
who aren't too sure that they are right"
-Unlike other countries, the American system welcomes
criticism, and thrives on conflict
-Responsible-party, Presidency centered model
holds that political parties should be prepared
to overcome constitutional divisions, primarily
through Presidential Leadership.
-Under the U.S. Constitution, due to the Separation
of Powers, and the encouragement of
conflict within Congress, it is not feasible
to "form a government", meaning primarily the
centralization of power as clear in the British
truly do not have, nor can form one government, meaning a total centralization
of power, we cannot hold the President accountable
for the sucess or failure of his overall
program, because he lacks the power to put that
plan into effect.
SPLIT PARTISAN CONTROL
-Split party government - President
of one party with the other party having majorities in one or
SHARED INSTITUTIONS COMPETING FOR SHARES OF POWER
-The system of disconnected, independent elections,
which is necessary for the separation of powers, ceases to ensure partisan
-With two parties sharing power results in
production of major legislation is the indicator of gridlock
-While 12.8 acts passed per Congress while
1 party ruled both houses, 11.7 passed during a split-party Congress
-Different political combinations will produce
different solutions to the same public problems
-In a federalized, and therefore seperated
system, voters can choose a Democrat here,
-The electoral system fosters co-partisan, cross-partisan,
and bi-partisan lawmaking
-Political Parties are organizations to
action in the seperated system
-Since WWII the President's party has lost
on average 30 seats, with a range of 4 to 5 seats [in midterm elections]
-Elections don't automatically produce unity,
even when all are ruled by one party
-Because partisan strategies for coalition
building won't work, Presidents and leaders devise cross-party strategies
-Seperated elections produce an ever-shifting
STABILITY IN CONGRESS
-House and Senate have become increasingly
career oriented, and institutionalized
-Congressmen and Senators have unprecedented
-Congress has a well-articulated committee
-Incumbent return rate in the House is
90%, while in the Senate its 67%
>Average length of service
for members after WWII is about 10 years for House and
Because in Congress there is NOT high
turnover, amateurism, and short memories, the President cannot gain
a conceivable edge over the Congress
-Presidents and Congresses usually work
within an agenda orientation that is naturally
associated with broad policy developments.
that government was the problem, and therefore installed a contractive
There were two approaches
Programmatic: seeking to cut back, eliminate, and devolve various
Fiscal: Seek to reduce taxes, thereby starving revenue
and preventing enactment
of new programs, while forcing serious re-consideration
But, taxes were raised several times during
Reagan's Presidency to avoid the debt, and give
more latitude in policymaking.
After Bush, the result was an example of
a separated system following the 1994 elections
A policy-ambitious Democratic President
a weak status, a highly energized Republican
House of Representatives, and a Senate with competitive
Republican "would be" Presidentials.
PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE SEPARATED SYSTEM
-Clinton had the least political capital
when he entered office
Weaknesses of Clinton
-He was governor of a small state,
a distance away from Washington, never holding a position in the federal
To compensate, Clinton relied on his presumed strength
-Because he had worked with a Democratic Legislature,
he never had to take Republicans into account
-Lacked experience in foreign and international
-"Policy wonk" (couldn't prioritize and
concentrate on a few issues, promising more than could be done)
-Lacked direct experience in forming, and
accomodating to an elaborately articulated staff
Nivola, #32 Doris Kearns, Lyndon Johnson and
the American Dream:
The American presidency is a personal dimension within
the American political system, intertwining the individual and the office.
Kearns compares the individual personal qualities
of Lyndon Johnston to the institutional aspects of the president.
by Chrystine D. Lake, Fall 2008
1. Different institutions reward different qualities:
Johnson used his ability within the Senate to gain power on the political
stage and his performance there was his means of advancing his ambition.
2. Johnson demonstrated hitherto unsuspected powers
in the executive branch: even though people believed that power was being
centralized in the executive, Johnson ‘gave it a new dimension’. Johnson
discovered that the president could exert a lot of power without being
noticed—through undisclosed information and the private interpretation
3. ‘This aspect of institutional change suggests
that the most effective checks on presidential power are not the committees
that form the constitutional system of ‘checks and balances.’ Instead they
are the media who more effectively restraint president actions.
4. ‘Johnson’s career also helps to reaffirm the
significance or consensus politics to effective leadership.’ For Johnson,
the lack of serious division and favorable economic conditions allowed
him formulate programs that would increase his public support and interest.
5. Johnson proved that the qualities of a leader
do not change when he assumes new and larger responsibilities. Kearns argues
that the basic abilities, ambitions grounded on inner needs, modes of conduct,
and inclinations of behavior are deeply and permanently embedded in an
individual. The point of noting this is that it is essential to look at
the foundations of that character to evaluate the power they will assume
in such a high office as presidency.
6. There are many outside influences on the president’s
abilities as well: cabinet, institutionalization, party, responsibilities.
7. ‘The President’s ability to focus national
attention upon his every word and deed is both a source of both power and
32: Doris Kearns, "Lyndon Johnson &
American Dream" (1976)
By Charles Walter, Fall 2007
Kearns explores how the office of the presidency
and the individual become intertwined.
Different Institutions reward different qualities
• rewards depends on the nature of the
individual leader’s ambition as well as the institution
Making the executive branch more powerful
• To Kennedy and Nixon the Senate was but a platform
to advance their careers
• Johnson, in contrast, held all the qualities
to become powerful Senate leader the institution rewarded his qualities
and those rewards were the object of his ambitions. He had other aspirations
of course but he wouldn’t focus on other chances for more power in another
institution because it delineated the work he was currently involved in.
He had to depend upon effective performance where he needed to control
his current institutional environment
• Thus he was unable to move from majority leader
to president on his own
• Demands of institutions are often contradictory
(what may be acceptable in one setting is not in another) 64 and 65 allowed
Johnson to be successful due to certain circumstances but when the circumstances
changed his qualities became ill-suited. His search for control caused
him to move toward coercive action to transform the executive branch into
his personal instrument.
• Important to understand whether or not a leader
is able to achieve his ambitions in a particular setting
• previous evolution had relied on economic
policy and welfare, significance of foreign policy, defense establishment,
involvement in war, etc with the knowledge of the public and Congressional
The most effective checks and balances are not the
committees that form the constitutional system of checks and balances but
rather that of the media and public opinion
• Johnson concealed what he was doing and represented
a change in the relationships within the constitutional framework which
moves, in some part, the presidential institution outside the framework
Johnson’s career helps to reaffirm the significance
of consensus politics in effective presidential leadership
• he constructed a consensus from an assembly
of particular groups and interests using individuals with whom he could
deal directly to influence Congress directly, he created an interlocking
web of services and obligations—it became a pluralistic consensus with
often contradictory interest which Johnson knew would shape the actions
Johnson’s career shows that the basic qualities of
a leader do not change when he assumes new and larger responsibilities
• Popular support consensus would come from achievement,
not a source
• Not realistic to assume a man “grows”
in office, they do learn but inclinations of behavior, ambitions, and modes
of conduct are deeply embedded (the new Nixon was the old Nixon with more
the presidential institution has grown in power as
well as the president’s ability to concentrate the power in his hands—a
consequence not as much of tyranny than as much as the steady weakening
of various institutions designed to check the president (cabinet, congress,
This centralization eventually weakens the president’s
ability to lead
A source of power and illusion is the president’s
ability to focus national attention by media
• for five years Johnson dominated the
Washington spotlight, the Cabinet was his, the Congress was his, the Great
Society was his…
• The man in the center remains in the center
when things go bad, thus Vietnam became “Johnson’s War” he personally was
dropping bombs, setting back racial/social progress