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Terrorism Index & Notes | 9/11 Report: Lewis's & Arnett's Outlines | World Affairs Council

PSC 309: Terrorism and Developing Countries,

Timetable of readings, questions & links

Revised 8/24/19, with removal of GoogOlympics to a new page; 8/11 with Canvas, Calendar & Google statement, by Jeremy Lewis.

Please check the following, using your Hawks identity only:

In summer, 3 semester weeks are compressed into each summer week, and each week of readings begins on Wednesday with a test each Tuesday following; each textbook chapter (though not 309 GoogOlympics event) should be noted in 4-5 paragraphs, and each short reading in one paragraph, submitted in the Google form for reports on readings.

Week: [01] [02] [03] [04] [05] [Test1] [06] [07] [08] [09] [10] [Test2] [11] [12] [ePaper] [13] [14] [Final]

Week 1: Introduction to syllabus and books

Week 2: Al Qaeda's attacks upon the United States
9/11 Commission's Report: Summary
02. Foundation of the New Terrorism | Summary [Lewis, PPT]
- How did AQ's new form of terrorism evolve, and from what stimulus?

CNN, Interview by Peter Arnett and Peter Bergen of OBL, 1997 (YouTube, 9')
- What are OBL's objectives and how clear is he in his warnings?
- Does OBL issue a fatwa, and what standing does he have to do so?
- Is OBL striking soldiers (asymmetric war) or civilians (terrorism)?
- Does OBL cite as his cause of war, US support of Israel, US offenses against Muslims, or US civilization in general?
- Why does OBL object to US troops on Saudi Soil?
- What does he mean by sending messages without words?

03. Counterterrorism Evolves | Summary [Lewis, PPT]
- How did US Counter Terrorism (CT) evolve, and did it evolve fast enough?
- By Sep 2001, how did the Clinton and Bush administrations compare in their approaches to CT?

9/11 Commission's Report | Summary | Questions
04. Responses to Al Qaeda's Initial Assaults | Summary [Lewis, PPT]
- What did the US's initial responses tell us about the US CT system?
05. Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland | Summary [Lewis, PPT]
- To what degree is the attack upon the homeland different from attacks upon US targets in Africa or Yemen?
06. From Threat to Threat | Summary [Lewis, PPT]
- How well did the US system prepare for a shift of targets to US soil?

Week 3: 9/11 Commission's Report
07. The Attack Looms | Summary [Lewis, PPT]  [Reporter]  
- How long did AQ take in the planning stages of the attacks?
08. The System Was Blinking Red | Summary  [Lewis, PPT]  [Reporter] 
- Were there sufficient warnings for the Bush administration to take prior action?
09. Heroism & Horror | Summary [Lewis, PPT]  [Reporter]  
- How well did initial responders cope with the assaults?

Richard Clarke's memo to national security adviser Condi Rice, about Al Qaida, on 25 Jan. 2001 - on NSA Facebook and on NSA Web (in more depth) [Reporter] 
- Did the incoming W. Bush administration have any warning of the seriousness and urgency of the threat from Al Qaida?

9/11 Commission's Report: Recommendations
10. Wartime | Summary [Lewis, PPT]  [Reporter]  
- Did the US need to make a transition from law enforcement to wartime?
11. Foresight -- and Hindsight | Summary [Lewis, PPT]  [Reporter]
- Should the US have foreseen terrorist attacks?
12. What to Do? A Global Strategy | Summary [Lewis, PPT]  [Reporter]
13. How to Do It? A Different Way of Organizing the Government | Summary [Lewis, PPT]  [Reporter]
- Did the US need to reorganize intelligence and law enforcement agencies?
- Did the US need law enforcement and intelligence agencies to communicate?
- Did the 9/11 attacks justify infringement on civil liberties?
- How many of the recommendations have been implemented?


Week 4: concepts and practice of terrorism
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '14-15 Questions
UNIT 1. The Concept of Terrorism [Reporter] 
[14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes] ['11-12 notes]
General questions:
- How can we define terrorism?
- How can we distinguish terrorism from general crime?
- What is the difference between terrorism and irregular warfare?
- What types of organizations can be classified as terrorist?
- Does the concept of terrorism predate the modern era?
- What causes terrorism?
- How is it changing?
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 2. Tactics of Terrorism [Reporter]
[14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes ['11-12 notes]
General questions:
- What tactics have been used and how can we defend against them?
- How might tactics change as we engage in surveillance and CT attacks?
- Can CT forces adapt faster than terrorist forces?
- What tactics require greater resources and skills?
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 3. State-Sponsored Terrorism 
[ 14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes ['11-12 notes]
General questions:
- If terrorists always have a footprint, does that have to be in a nation state?
- What types of state sponsor terrorist groups, and how?
- What characteristics of terrorist groups make them attractive as proxies, to states?
Possible showing of a documentary film on a terrorism related topic
Week 5: international versus American terrorism
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 4. International Terrorism [Reporters]
[ 14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes] ['11-12 notes]
General questions:
- What motivates international terrorism? How is it distinct from domestic terrorism?
- What strategies do international groups adopt?
- What trends are there in international terrorism?
- What types of international groups are there?
- What are the targets of international terrorist groups?
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 5. Terrorism in America [Reporters]
[14e Notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes] ['11-12 notes] ['09-10 notes]
General questions:
- What motivates domestic terrorism? How is it distinct from international terrorism?
- What strategies do domestic groups adopt?
- What trends are there in domestic terrorism?
- What types of domestic groups are there?
- What are the targets of domestic terrorist groups?

See Calendar for TEST 1; covering all materials listed before the date; a mixture of multiple choice, paragraphs, and an essay.

Week 6: terrorism versus rights

Critical thinking session on terrorism and US constitutional rights 
- In principle, should rights (to free speech, free association, free exercise of religion and ownership of firearms) be limited by the State?
- How did the Federalists handle seditious speech in their administrations?
- How did associations develop in the US in the C19th compared to those in the Old World?
- How did the courts handle protests against 3 major wars in the C20th?
- What are the practical difficulties in preventing terrorism by arresting people for advocating political violence, joining terrorist associations or violent religions, and purchasing an arsenal of firearms?
- Given that the US permits a broad degree of free speech and holding firearms, to what degree does the open political system deflect terrorism into nonviolent political competition?

Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism  Questions
UNIT 6. Terrorism and the Media [Reporter]
[14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes ['10-11 notes]
General questions:
- If media publicity is the oxygen of terrorist campaigns, should they be barred from interviewing terrorists?
- Do media tend to reflect the State's or the terrorist group's point of view?
- Does the internet render the media uncontrollable?
- Should YouTube take down any videos posted by terrorist groups of their attacks?
- Could terrorist groups' websites be shut down?
- Does the internet enable security services' snooping more than it helps terrorists?
- Has posing as journalists been used more by assassins or by surveillance authorities?

- How do international terrorist groups exploit the western mass media?
- What are the communications strategies of terrorist groups?
- To protect us from terrorism, should governments restrain the communications media?
- How should the media cover terrorism?
- How will media developments of the future affect the opportunities for terrorism?

Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 7. Terrorism and Religion [Reporter]
[14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes ['10-11 notes] General questions:
- Is religion generally a force for peace rather than terrorism?
- Is an Islamic caliphate across the former Ottoman empire a goal of Islamic terrorism?
- Is the destruction of Western Christians a goal of Islamic terrorism?
- Is this in tension with the desire for a caliphate?
- Is Hinduism a motivation for terrorism?
- Is intentional suicide bombing only associated with Islam?
- Why did the IRA not engage in intentional suicide bombing?
- Can religion ever be as powerful a motivator as nationalism (or irredentism)?
- How can a State defend against terrorism motivated by religion?

Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism 
UNIT 8. Women and Terrorism [Reporter]
[14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes ['10-11 notes]

General questions:
- Have women historically been victims rather than perpetrators of political violence?
- Can most women be trained to attack civilian populations for a political idea?
- What characteristics make women hard to defend against?
- What have been the roles of women in warfare, espionage and in terrorism?
- Is there any truth to the thesis that "black widows" make effective converts to terrorism?
- Are terrorist groups inhibited by their ideology from using women?
- Are there some causes and some cultures where women are featured as terrorists?
Week 7: how should governments respond?
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism  Questions
UNIT 9. Government Response [Reporter]
[14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes]  ['10-11 notes]
General questions:

- What choices of response do governments face?
- Do law enforcement strategies have a successful track record with some types of terrorism?
- Is prevention of terrorism being taken far enough?
- How do governments attempt to surveill terrorism, and what are the limitations?
- What are the advantages of covert responses, including targeted assassination and arrest?
- What are the advantages of infantry occupation and regime change?
- What are the advantages of financial blocking?
- What are the advantages of hardening targets?
Questions on the readings:
- Is the war on terrorism really a cold war of ideas, and can a responsive Muslim government win this war?
- How have governments succeeded or failed in Indonesia, Nigeria, the Caucasus, and elsewhere?
- How well can governments distinguish between terrorists and civilians?
- How could governments prevent nuclear terrorism?

The case of the "Torture Memos"
Jay Bybee, memo for AG, Re: Standards for Interrogation, Office of Legal Counsel, Dept of Justice, 8/1/2002 [PDF]
John Yoo, OLC of Dept of Justice, legal argument of memo on enhanced interrogation methods (documents and videos online)

Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism  Questions
UNIT 10. Future Threats 
[14e notes] [Most 14e notes, PDF] ['12-13 notes] ['10-11 notes]
General questions:
- What types of weapons might be used in future?
- What new causes of terrorism might emerge?
- What threats might come from climate change, migration and resource shortages?
- Will future conflicts come more from non-state actors than states?
- Can terrorist groups be co-opted in democracies?
- How might international terrorism mutate, and spread?
- Will Western minority populations adopt foreign jihadi ideology?
- Will the cost of prevention prove too expensive to maintain?
Questions on readings:
- Has AQ, rather than being destroyed, simply moved to Yemen, Somalia and Pakistan?
- Is sudden radicalization of youth going to be a continuing threat to the US, and how? Will it defeat surveillamce (which cannot intervene until radicalization of youth)?
- Is piracy off Africa funding terrorism, and how can it be contained?

JRT Lewis [Slide] Legal constraints on Interrogations 
Notes on US policy on interrogations and torture
- How does US and international law constrain the US from using torture?
- Is there a difference between torture and physical ill treatment of captives?
- How did the G.W. Bush administration use executive actions to evade constraints?
- What are the consequences for the US of enhanced interrogation techniques?

GoogOlympics Event: Muslim attitudes abroad to the US

Week 8: how can we study developing countries' politics?
Hauss 11: Less Developed Countries | Discussion Notes 
Thinking about Less Developed World | Evolution of LDC Politics | Political Culture | Political Participation | Weak States | Public policy: Myths and realities of Development
- How can we properly compare nations and states?
- What are the proper units and benchmarks of comparison?
- How can we analyze a moving target?
- What themes can we use for comparison?
- What neutral point is there to begin our comparison?

Griffiths, Unit 1. Understanding the developing world [Reporters]
- Does economic development drive political development -- or the reverse?
- Can emerging economies backslide -- or is development a linear process?
- Can the Marxist and capitalist theories of development ever be reconciled?
- Will demographic trends favor -- or frustrate development?
- How did poverty, health and family incomes change in the 2000s?
- Does "the rise of the rest" hurt the West?

Griffiths, Unit 2. Political economy & the developing world [Reporters]
- Will developing countries be more cautious about accepting loans and free trade after the financial crisis of 2008-09?
- Will emerging markets be more buoyant in future than developed ones?
- Should development aid be reformed into aid that reaches more people than the elites?
- How can aid tackle the widespread diseases of developing countries?
- Is non-profit donation to developing countries a helpful model of development?

- Check Calendar for due date for Research Design

Week 9: inequality under capitalism and former communist countries

GoogOlympics Event:  Capitalism and Socialism
Hauss 8: Current and Former Communist Regimes | Lecture | Discussion Notes
Thinking About Communism | Socialism, Marxism, Leninism | The Marxist-Leninist State | The Crisis of Communism: Suicide by Public Policy | Transitions | Troubled Transitions: The Former Soviet Union
- Why should there be any nostalgia for past communist regimes?
- Why should former communist parties attract voters in new democracies?
- What was the role of Gorbachev in the transition from communism?
- What did perestroika and glasnost mean to Russians?
- Are there any truly Marxist countries left?
- In what way does thinking about communist regimes expose our assumptions about government?
- What are the tenets of Socialism, Marxism and Leninism?
- What was democratic centralism? A command economy?
- How did Orwell's Animal Farm satirize Stalin?
- How are liberals and socialists divided on the means of production? equality of outcome? the spread of democracy?
- What to Marx are the economic base? contradictions?  superstructure? need for revolution?

More general questions: 
- How do Socialism, Marxism and Leninism differ?
- What was missing from Socialism that Marx sought to add?
- What was missing from Marxism that Lenin sought to add?
- How did Lenin seek to turn theory into practice?
- Why did communist regimes decline and fall in the 1980s?
- Why did Russia not develop smoothly (economically and politically) post 1989?

Griffiths, Unit 3: Conflict and instability [Reporters]
- Is the global trend towards more or less political violence?
- Is technology making conflict more or less violent?
- Did the Arab spring decrease or increase the conflict between regional powers in the Middle East?
- Have peacekeeping or humanitarian interventions done more harm than good?
- Should peacekeeping or humanitarian forces be more heavily armed?
- Will the aging of the developed world population shift the balance of power?

Week 10: former communist countries
Hauss 9: Russia | Discussion Notes | Maps of Asia| Maps of Russia | Lecture
Russia's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporters]
Brief Lecture on Russian revolutionary history
Hauss: Thinking About Russia | The Evolution of the Russian State | Between Dictatorship and Democracy | Political Culture and Participation | The Russian State | Public Policy
- What was the history of Russian political institutions before 1917?
- Why did the Bolsheviki overturn the Russian state?
- How did Stalin replace Lenin in control of the state?
- Who should control the nation state?
- If the State works for the people, why is there a need to restrain it?
- Why did Marxist-Leninist regimes fail to develop economically alongside other regimes?

GoogOlympics Event: Islamic State

See Calendar for TEST 2 , covering all the above, a mixture of multiple choice, paragraphs, and an essay.

Hauss 10: China | Maps of Asia | Discussion Notes | Lecture with PPT 
Questions on Joseph's textbook (discontinued)
China's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporters]
Brief Lecture on Chinese revolutionary history
Hauss: | Thinking about China | Evolution of Chinese Politics | Political Culture | Political Participation | Chinese State | Public policy

Comparing Chinese and Russian communism in power: Discussion Notes 
- How does China's heritage affect development?
- How did China awake to the modern age?
- How did Maoism take root in China?
- What were the effects of the civil war on China?
- How did communism constrain China's modern development?
- How did the CCP open up economics to market forces?

China's 2015 public relations video advertising the "Shi San Wu" (13th Five-Year Plan, in style of late 1960s hippie folk songs, pretty bad, on YouTube).

Week 11: democracies in India and Latin America
Hauss 12: India | Maps | Discussion Notes | Lecture

India's rankings in CIA World Factbook 
Hauss: Thinking about India | Evolution of Indian Politics | Political Culture | Political Participation | Indian State | Public policy
- How does India's heritage affect development?
- How did India achieve independence?
- How did India forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could India exploit for development?
- Does India show that development is compatible with open democracy?

GoogOlympics event: Comparing the issues faced in the twenty first century in China, India, Mexico and Turkey

Hauss 16: Latin America | Maps | Discussion Notes on Latin America
Mexico | Maps | Discussion Notes on Mexico | Briefing on Mexico's modern regimes from 1863
Mexico's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporters]
Hauss: Thinking about Mexico | Evolution of the Mexican State | Political Culture | Political Participation | The Mexican State | Public Policy
- How does Mexico's heritage affect development?
- How did Mexico achieve independence?
- How did Mexico forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could Mexico exploit for development?
- Does Mexico show that development is compatible with open democracy?
- How is Mexico affected by proximity to the US?

Griffiths, Unit 4: Political Change in the developing world [Reporters]
- What factors cause turmoil in the Middle East -- and what calms it?
- Was the Arab spring only a short term phenomenon?
- Have the military and the Muslim Brotherhood been moderating influences in the Arab spring?
- Is the Chinese engagement abroad dangerous for human rights?
- Would it be dangerous to give developing nations seats in the councils of power?

For the ePaper, deliverable by TurnItIn, see Calendar, Citations page and Requirements page
Note that, for reliability, ePapers may now be delivered to my Uploads folder as well as to Turnitin.
Week 12: corruption and freedom, Africa and the Middle East
GoogOlympics event: freedom, corruption and transparency

Hauss 15: Africa | Maps

Nigeria | Maps | Discussion Notes | Lecture
Nigeria's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporters]
Thinking about Nigeria | Evolution of the Nigerian State | Political Culture and Participation | The Nigerian State | Public policy

- How does Nigeria's heritage affect development?
- How did Nigeria achieve independence?
- How did Nigeria forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could Nigeria exploit for development?
- Does Nigeria show that development is compatible with open democracy?

Hauss 13: Iran| Maps| Discussion Notes | Lecture

Iran's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporters]
The Basics | Evolution of the Iranian State | The People and Politics | The Iranian State | Public Policy
- How does Iran's heritage affect development?
- How did Iran achieve independence?
- How is the constitution constructed to match theocracy with democracy?
- How does Iran exploit oil for development?
- How is development affected by Iran's relations with the global community?
- Does Iran show that development is compatible with theocracy?
Week 13: topical issues of developing regions
Critical thinking sessions (with PPT) about design of research briefing.

Griffiths, Unit 5: Population, resources, environment and health [Reporters] 
Maps of rivers flowing across national borders: Nile (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and others, to Egypt) | Euphrates (Turkey and Syria to Iraq)
- As resources dry up, how will our costs increase?
- What types of precious resources are located in unstable regimes or conflicted areas?
- How could trade conflicts increase dangers?
- What is the value of water -- and where is it going to be in short supply?
- With new technology in energy, which sources will be transformed?
- Which types of energy are more damaging than others?
- As the sources of energy shift, which countries will gain or lose economically?
- Where can energy demand be reduced?
- With new technology in agriculture and manufacturing, which areas will be transformed, and which any moderately improved?
- Will climate change exceed the effects of global warming?
- As some areas lose fishing or agriculture, and others gain, can cooperation among states exceed the tensions and control conflict?
- Where can the US or the UN intervene to prevent conflict turning to force?

(Hauss's chapter on Iraq has been discontinued in the Ninth Edition.)

Briefings of research

Week 14: development through women
Briefings of research

Women and Development | Lecture
The history of economic mobilization of women in the West

The industrial revolution in the West
The office technology revolution in the West, 1890-1910
The Great War, 1914
The second world war, 1939-45
Benefits disproportionately for women of the New Deal and the British NHS
The wave of feminism 1962-1970
Women in the educated professions, 1980-
The revolution of conduct in the office, 1986-
Political mobilization and leadership across Western societies
Models for mobilization of women in the developing world
Micro-finance and micro-business, cell-phone finance
Birth control
Health initiatives for women and children
Water supplies
Voting rights
General questions about mobilizing women for development:
- Does educating women have a multiplier effect since it also educates children?
- Do De Tocqueville's comments about American women translate to modern developing countries?
- Do developed workplace rules support women increasingly well - is that a potential factor in development?
- Do western welfare states support women more than men, and could that aid developing nations?
- Do women chatter [converse] more than men - and will they succeed in related businesses & professions?
- Do women who are used to caring for children and older relatives pay more attention to long term development, and will this translate to developing small businesses more successfully?
- Are women inherently more peaceful than men, especially young men, and can this translate to development of peace and prosperity?
- Will women develop village businesses and repay micro-loans better than men?

Griffiths, Unit 6: Women & development [Reporters]
- How does the marginalization of women retard economic development?
- In what ways were women helped or harmed by the Arab spring?
- Has the international community been at all successful in holding accountable those who commit mass crimes against women?
- In what ways and to what degree do multinational corporations empower women?

GoogOlympics Event: Programs for women

Possible showing of documentary film
Women, War and Peace: Liberia (Documentary film, PBS, 2009) Women's World Banking

Possible documentary film showing
Students should prepare, for Maps test.
  Finals week: where we show what we've learned
Comprehensive final exam, for two hours; see Calendar, expect multiple choice and essay questions, in usual classroom.