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PSC 308: Public Organizations and Policy, Time Table

By Jeremy LewisRevised 08/19/18 removing reporters' names.
Week: [01] [02] [03] [04] [05] [Test1] [06] [07] [08] [09] [Test 2] [Scores] [10] [11] [12] [Project] [13] [14] [Final]

Week 1
Introduction to the course 
Dye, Ch.1: Policy Analysis: What Gov'ts Do, Why They Do it and What Difference.
- What are the purposes of government?
- How do the policies tied to each purpose vary in their characteristics?
- How are government programs derived from these purposes?

Beginnings: staffing and policy change and leadership in the Presidential transition, Jan-Feb. 2017
Kelly Magsamen, "What Trump's Restructuring of the National Security Council Means," The Atlantic Monthly, 1/29/17 [Reporter]
Eliot A. Cohen, "A Clarifying Moment in American History," The Atlantic Monthly, 01/29/17 [Reporter]

- When should restructuring be undertaken to change policy?
- When should professionals decline to join an administration?

Stephanie Akin, "GOP Staffers Are Waiting to Hear, ‘You’re Hired’," Roll Call 1/30/17 [Reporter]
- Is the hiring process in a new administration, a sprint or a marathon?
- Should the President concentrate on fewer top level nominations or more lower level?

Nina Burleigh, "Regulations we will miss if Trump has his way." Newsweek, 1/31/17 [Reporter]
- How are regulations normally evaluated before approval and how does Trump's Executive Order propose to change this?

Nikki Haley. US Amb. to UN, first speech to the UN General Assembly (YouTube, 10', 2/2/17)
[After introducing herself, Amb. Haley upholds a UN resolution and sanctions critical of Russia.]
- Is this speech consistent with the campaign direction of her President?
- Does this speech sound personal or does it seem to have undergone development with her State Dept. professionals?
- Does this speech serve the culture of the UN as a body?

Rex Tillerson. Sec. of State, introductory speech to the State Dept employees, (YouTube, 2/2/17)
[After the introductions, he explains core values, and that management and policy changes will come later.]
- How does Tillerson express core values, respect for the staff and the department's work?
- Given that the new President came to office vowing to shake up US foreign policy, treaties and trade, is Tillerson emphasizing revolution or stability?

Fictional exemplar of leadership in crisis decisionmaking
"I Spy Apocalypse," MI5/Spooks series (BBC-TV)
[The emergency decision-making exercise begins at about 9 minutes]
- Does Tom use comprehensive or proximate search methods in making decisions?
- What dilemmas does Tom face in compliance with law and constitution?
- In what ways does he use leadership to motivate the team?
- In what ways is Tom an exemplar of public management?
- In what ways does Tom use participation within the team and when does he limit it?
- When dissent breaks out, at about 48' how does Tom prepare to handle it if necessary?

Leading questions scene about opinion polling, Yes Prime Minister series, (BBC TV, 2')
- Of public officials and public opinion, which is really the leader?
- In what ways can a poll lead a desired result?

Week 2
Dye, Ch.11: Civil Rights: Elite and Mass Interaction. [Reporter]
[Lecture on CR as a mass mass movement]
[Lecture on Roger Taney's historical opinions on slavery and fugitives; local PPT]
ML King, "I have a Dream Speech" (documentary video) as time permits. [Shown in Library on MLK day]
PBS videos on civil rights movements -- recommended homework.
- How did the civil rights movement try to influence policy from outside government?
- Dye describes civil rights policy as a response of a national elite to minority sentiments rather than to the majority.  Is he correct?
- Voting equality and affirmative action are two different types of equality according to Dye.  Is he right on that?
- Is feminism a different kind of civil rights movement than the black movement was? [Likewise gay rights, disabled ...]
- What are the principal civil rights laws and what do they require?

Stillman Case 1: Martin, "Blast in Centralia No. 5: Mine Disaster." [Lecture] [Reporter]
- How should American public administration be different from the European? [W. Wilson]
- How has the study of American public administration changed since the age of Wilsonian reformers? [Stillman]
- In what sense does Martin indicate that a disaster can have multiple causes, and there can be multiple breakdowns of administration and politics in a single program?

Week 3
Dye, Ch.2: Models of Politics: Some Help in Thinking about Public Policy. [Lecture]
- What are policy models and are they any use?
- Explain the institutional model versus the process model.
- How do institutional roles and control by leaders, directors and chairs help shape the policy outcome?

- Compare group theory (pluralism) with elite theory.
- Is there usually a balance of interest groups lobbying over a policy?
- If an elite controls a policy, how can we analyze that elite's values and check whether they are transmitted to policy?

- Contrast the rational model with incrementalism.
- Do we typically have enough information to make policy for the next generation?
- How can we calculate the present value of future costs and benefits?
- If we make policy in small steps, reacting to problems with each step, can we still end up with major changes?

- Compare game theory with public choice theory and systems theory.
- Is it generally true that we can assume rational behavior and predict an organization's next move?
- Do individuals and organizations pursue self-interest enough of the time to help us analyze their behavior?
- How can we tell if models are helping us analyze policymaking?

Stillman 2, Introduction to Formal Structure:
Max Weber, "On Bureaucracy," in Stillman (ed) | Lecture [Local PPT] [Reporter]
- Do Max Weber's ideas about early Prussian bureaucracy apply to modern American government agencies?
- Has bureaucracy become a universal form of government, no matter what the political system?
Max Weber, on the nature of authority, in Curtis (ed) v2 [Reporter]
- What types of authority are there -- and how legitimate is each?

Fictional and real illustrations of leadership by authority:
Gregory Peck in Twelve O'Clock High | Guy Gibson, as portrayed in The DamBusters
President Trump, speech to the CIA officers, Jan. 2017

Case 2: George Lardner, "How Kristin Died. [Lecture] [Reporter]
- Was Kristin's death the fault of the perpetrator, the system or individual workers?

Week 4
Dye, Ch.3: Policymaking Process: Decision-Making Activities.
- What are the stages of the policymaking process?
- What are the effects of public opinion?
- Are elite opinions different from the mass and are they closer to actual policy?
- How does the agenda get set and is a nondecision the same as a decision?
- How can opinion be mobilized on an issue?
- How is policy formulated and by whom?
- What makes policy legitimate?
- To what degree do the political parties influence policy?
- How do the bureaucracies affect policy?
- How systematic is policy evaluation?

Nivola 10: Policy Process Introduction [Reporter]
Nivola 10: #43: John Kingdon, "Agenda Setting"  [Reporter]
- Why do some subjects rise on the national agenda while others are neglected?
- Why are some policy alternatives chosen over others?
- What are the influences of technical problems; politics and participants in the process?
- How doe these three "streams" become "coupled"
- What windows of opportunity open up for policies?

Stillman, Case 3: Terry L. Cooper and Thomas A. Bryer, "William Robertson: Exemplar of Politics and Public Management Rightly Understood" [Reporter]
- How does an effective public administrator pay attention to the political environment around him?
- To what degree is citizen participation genuinely democratic and useful in administration?
- How does the ecology of interest groups help analyze US public administration?

Week 5
See Dates page for Test 1, which may include multiple choice, short answer and essay questions on all the above.

Exemplar of crisis decisionmaking in sport
A young referee confidently makes the most difficult decisions that come up in rugby union football. (video, The Rugby Channel, 9')
Dye, Ch.4: Criminal Justice: Rationality and Irrationality in Public Policy.
- What helps to deter crime?
- How well does the American justice system deter crime?
- What are the causes of crime?
- Does crime pay?
- In what way do US values over crime conflict?

Stillman, Case 4: Maureen Hogan Casamayou, "The Columbia Accident." [Lecture]
PBS, NOVA, Columbia Space Shuttle Disaster 2003, (PBS video, transcript. 50') [Lecture]
Challenger Disaster (1986): The Lost Tapes (National Geographic documentary, 49')
- Was the space shuttle disaster caused more by political or bureaucratic problems?

- When a major disaster occurs, and the press seeks one person to blame, is it really missing the systemic failures?
- How could a small piece of foam destroy an large vehicle?
- How do the risks of a large and complex project multiply out?

Nivola & Rosenbloom (eds) Classic Readings in American Politics.
33: James Q. Wilson, "Bureaucracy Problem" [Reporter]
- In what sense if any is there a real bureaucracy problem?
- Are there multiple problems of bureaucracy, caused by conflicting values?

34: Herbert Kaufman, "Red Tape" [Reporter]
- Where does red tape originate, and where should blame lie?
- Is red tape really a by-product of our compassion?
- Why can't consumer product safety just be left to consumers?
- What is the significance of the Administrative Procedures Act 1946?

Glenn Thrush and Maggie Haberman, "Trump and Staff Rethink Tactics After Stumbles," NY Times, 02/05/17

Week 6
Dye, Ch.7: Welfare Policy: Search for Rational Strategies. (was Health & Welfare in some editions) 
- How are "entitlements" different from the term "welfare"?
- When were welfare programs created and expanded?
- What are the major entitlement programs in the US?
- What values support or oppose entitlements?
- What reforms have been proposed of entitlements?

Dye, Ch.8: Health Care: Attempting a Rational-Comprehensive Transformation (renumbered in Dye 15th edition)

PPACA, the Health Care Reform Act ("Obamacare"), March 2010: lecture notes | White House | Alabama
- What are the goals of the health care reform?
- When will the provisions come into effect?
- Will the reforms actually increase or decrease federal costs?
- How were the reforms put through the House and the Senate?
- Who supported or opposed the reforms?
- Will the reforms achieve universal coverage?
- Which groups will benefit? Which will pay for those benefits?
- 2017 update: how much of the PPACA will be removed by the Republican majority in Congress?
- What parts of the act will be retained?

When feasible: Test 1 returned, with exemplary written answers presented | See scores page

Week 7

What will be the Republican replacement provisions in 2016-17 for the PPACA? [Jones & Clark X]
French health care: Best in the world? (France24, 8')
France: 'Best' Health Care? (CBS, 2008, 7')
- How does the cost and coverage of French health care compare with its neighbors and with the US?
- How is care delivered in France: via public, private or hybrid system?
Michael Moore, French social benefits dinner conversation from film Sicko (4')
- What kinds of social benefits do French receive compared to the US, at what fees?

Dye, Ch.6: Education: Group Struggles [Lecture]
What will be the Republican reforms of secondary education for 2016-17? [Reporter]
Sen. Warren questions Betsy DeVos in confirmation hearings for Sec. of Education (5')
Sen. Al Franken questions DeVos' on measuring education (6')
- To what degree do hearings elicit explanations of policy?
- To what degree are hearings a fair guide to the qualities of candidates?

Stillman 6, Introduction to Informal Group in the workplace:
Scientific management theory versus humanist theory

Elton Mayo, "Hawthorne & Western Electric Co."[Reporter]
- How do people's informal groups affect behavior in the workplace?
- Why does scientific management run into apparently irrational results?
- How do people get motivated by attention?
- What is the difference between task management and human resource management?
- Are workers motivated more by fear or by love (well, attention anyway)?

Case 6: William Langewiesche, "American Ground: Unbuilding the World Trade Center."[Reporter]
- How did tensions among informal groups surface at the WTC?
- How did communications systems reinforce the tensions among teams?
- To what degree did those tensions complicate the management of the environmental clean up?

Week 8
Dye, Ch.13: Energy and the Environment: Externalities & Interests | Graphs from 15e

- What are externalities and how do these affect public choice?
- What are the costs to industry of regulation, and the costs to society of pollution?
- Should the environment be regulated by command and control or by market incentives?
- What types of externalities are there?
- What interest groups are active in environmental policy?
- What have been the major pieces of legislation on the environment?
- What are the possible statutory measures to preserve the environment?

Stillman, Case 5: Susan Rosegrant, "Wichita Confronts Contamination". [Reporter]
- Are there occasions when a locality should face up to problems locally, rather than calling on federal aid?
- How can public-private partnerships be used to save city downtowns?
- What tasks can a city tackle and what should be done by the private businesses?

Steve Bannon, chief political strategist to President Trump, "A new order is forming," speech to CPAC, Feb. 2017,  YouTube, 8'.
- What is his strategy for defense and intelligence services, trade pacts, and deconstruction of the administrative state?
- Why does he think conservatives at CPAC will support President Trump ("have our back")?
- Why does he oppose the "corporatist, globalist media"?

Deirdre Shesgreen, "GOP senators outline first Obamacare replacement plan," USA Today,1/23/17

Jessica Glenza, "Trump on replacing healthcare law that took years to craft: 'Nobody knew it could be so complicated,'" The Guardian, 2/27/17 (Includes embedded video quotation and link to a Pew Center poll.)

Research Design: bring your design to class.
Explain the nature of the problem or issue to be explored; the approach you will take to investigating it and the nature of your coverage (periods, states, institutions, elections, parties, countries, presidencies); and what differences, causes or consequences you expect to find. Provide a list of the main sources you find useful. Research Design: simple template PPT [Reporter]
Week 9
Dye, Ch.15: Defense Policy: Strategies for Serious Games. [Strategy Lecture]
- How can we apply game theory to nuclear deterrence?
- What are the weaknesses of nuclear deterrence?
- Why do we have three types of nuclear weapons platform instead of one?
- What arms control agreements have been made, and why was one not enough?
- Why does the US maintain security alliances with other nations?
- What types of military threats does the US face?

Yes, Prime Minister, nuclear deterrence strategy scene from The Grand Design (BBC TV, 3').
Monty Python's Flying Circus, "The Precision Drilling Sketch," on YouTube (web fun)

Stillman 7, Introduction to Decisionmakers: Competing Bureaucratic Subsytems
Richard Stillman, "Inside Public Bureaucracy"
- Explain the processes of decisionmaking and the common problems.
Case 7: James Pfiffner, "Decision to go to War with Iraq."[Vise & Martin]
- Can even the decision to use military force be made by competing groups inside bureaucracy?

Monty Python - Self-Defense Against Fruit (BBC, YouTube, 3')

See Dates page for Test 2, which may include multiple choice, short answer and essay questions on all since Test 1.  

Week 10

When feasible: Test 2 returned, with exemplary written answers presented [partly]

Explanation of research project: see Dates page and Requirements page

Dye, Ch.10: Economic Policy: Challenging Incrementalism
- How does incrementalism affect economic policy?
- Contrast fiscal and monetary policy.
- Contrast the classical theory with the Keynesian theory.
- Contrast monetary policy with supply-side policy.
- What is the role of the Federal Reserve Board?
- How has GDP grown in the US over recent decades?
- What are the relations among income, production, unemployment and inflation?
- How does fragmentation affect economic policy?
- How is discretion over the budget limited by entitlements?
- What is the budgetary process?
- Is US budgeting annual and comprehensive?

Stillman 8, Introduction to Incrementalism: Lecture [PPT begun] [Notes from evening class] [Reporter]
Concept 8: Charles Lindblom, "Science of Muddling Through"
- Is a rational, comprehensive approach better than an incremental process of decisionmaking?

Nivola 10: #44: Lindblom, "Science of Muddling Through"[Reporter]
- What is incrementalism, and why could it be better than a rational plan?
- What is the difference between the rational comprehensive approach to decisionmaking, and the successive, limited comparisons approach?
- Which approach requires more information, time and consensus?
- Which approach is more idealistic and which more realistic?
- Is any compromise method of making decisions feasible, and when should each method best be utilized?

Monty Python, The Ministry of Silly Walks (BBC, YouTube, 3')

Case 8: Michael Grunwald and Susan B. Lasser, "How a City Slowly Drowned"[Reporter]
- Can crises be caused by inaction as well as positive action?
- Was the Katrina disaster a short term crisis -- or the product of years of decisions?

Week 11
Further training for research project, with references and audiovisual presentation; see Dates page & Requirements page

Stillman 11, Introduction to Public Personnel Motivation: Culture
Lois Wise, "Public Service Culture. [Wise's page at IU] [Reporter]
- How does a professional ethic affect the behavior of the civil service?

Case 11: Deborah Sontag, "Who Brought Bernadine Healy Down?" [Reporter]
- In what ways may ethics rules trip up even dedicated public servants?
- What can happen when a leader's ethos does not match the organization?
- What are the values of a service-oriented non-profit organization, and how should it be led?

Nivola 10: #45: Edward Banfield, "Influence and the Public Interest" [Reporter]
- What case studies were the basis for Banfield's ideas?
- How is the need for central decisionmaking in tension with social choice?
- How do individual choices interact to give a community choice?
- How can a mixed decision-choice process be developed?

Nivola 10: #46: Theodore Lowi, "Distribution, Regulation, Redistribution: Functions ... [Reporter]
- Does politics make policy -- or the reverse?
- What are the three categories of policy and how do they differ?
- How do the policy actors differ in the three categories?
- How do the impacts of the types of policy differ?

Week 12
Explanation of the course rotation and courses offered for next term; and interviews with academic adviser for pre-registration advising.

Training for research project, with references and audiovisual presentation; see Dates page & Requirements page

Dye, Ch.11: Tax Policy: Battling the Special Interests | Lecture notes| PPT | Tax diagram
- What are the most valuable federal tax types?
- Which is fairest: universal, progressive or flat tax?
- What effects would a flat tax have?
- How are tax laws influenced by special interest groups?
- If interests dominate, why did the 1986 tax reform act happen?
- What affect do taxes have on economic growth?
- Have tax cuts been effective in stimulating growth?
- Can we obtain greater tax revenue from cutting tax rates, as the Laffer curve suggests?

Stillman 14, Introduction to Issue Networks:
Hugh Heclo, "Issue Networks & Executive Establishment." [Reporter]
- How do groups of experts from outside the Congress or the bureaus, interested in a policy affect the policy?

Case 14: Laura Sims, "Reinventing School Lunch." [Reporter]
- What light does the school lunch reform case shed on the importance of issue networks?
- Which groups fought to reform school lunches, and which opposed reform?

Research project due: see Dates page and Requirements page

Week 13
Dye, Ch.12: International Trade & Immigration: Elite-Mass Conflict
- How large is world trade?
- What does the US import and export?
- Explain the theory of comparative advantage.
- What international institutions oversee world trade?
- What US treaties permit free trade?
- What US laws control immigration and what is their effect?

Stillman 15, Introduction to Deregulation:
Case 15: James P. Pfiffner, "Torture and Public Policy"   [Reporter]
- What are the constraints against torture, in international law?
- How did the US administration legally justify torture of detainees?

Illustrated briefings by students of their research projects
Briefings timetable | Advice |
Examples from past seniors' capstone presentations (see Rainey, McCollum and Pierce for model PPT files)
Course evaluations

Week 14
Illustrated briefings by students of their research projects
Briefings timetable | Advice |
Examples from past seniors' capstone presentations (see Rainey, McCollum and Pierce for model PPT files)
Course evaluations

Dye, Ch.4: Policy Evaluation: What Happens After a Law is Passed
- How are the consequences of policy evaluated?
- What types of benefits and costs are there?
- What methods of evaluation are available?
- What are the qualities of using experiments in policy?
- What defenses are available against critical findings of evaluations?
- Are all problems tractable by policy programs?

Stillman 16, Introduction to Competing Ethical Obligations:
Case 16: Richard D. White, Jr, "George Tenet and the Last Great Days of the CIA" [Reporters]
- In what ways do federal officials have a professional ethic that limits their choices of behavior?
- How may professional ethics be in tension with the public interest?
- If political appointees are ideologically hostile to the agencies they serve, what is their ethical responsibility to their employer?

See Dates page for Comprehensive Final Exam.

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