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PSC 303: International Relations TimeTable

By Prof. Jeremy Lewis, Revised 4/11/17 with links.
No classes, Spring 2017: M 16 Jan., F 27 Jan., F 17 & 24 Feb., F 3 Mar., 27-31 Mar., F 14 Apr..  
Week: [01] [02] [03] [04] [05] [06] [Test1] [07] [08] [09] [10] [Test2] [11] [12] [ePaper] [13] 14]  [Final]

Week 1

Introduction to the course [Lectures]
Development of US Foreign Policy:
McCormick, Part 1: Values & Policies in American Foreign Affairs [5e notes]
McCormick, 6e, Ch.1: Americas' Traditions in Foreign Policy [5e notes; 4e notes] [PPT]
- What are the US traditions and values in foreign policy?
- Why did isolationism arise and what were its effects?
- Why and how does moral principle guide US foreign policy?

Present Obama, State of the Union message 2015, introduction (C-SPAN, YouTube) (NY Times, full version after ad; "We have turned the page." (Scroll past first 50 seconds or so for his announcement of the removal of most US troops from war zones.)
Clips from SOTU on policy: Progress against ISIS at 35'; Diplomacy & Iran; Climate Change; next steps with Cuba.

Week 2
McCormick, 6e, Ch.2: America's Global Involvement and the Emergence of the Cold War[4e notes] [Lecture]
Maps of NATO members | Polar map of NATO and Warsaw Pact | Map of Korean War | Maps of other conflicts 
[Lectured 2017 on Korean war; Truman doctrine; X article; strategy of containment; atomic confrontation; Cuban missile crisis; and arms race]
[Lectured 2017 on Berlin airlift crisis; Eisenhower's limited VN war; Bay of Pigs; Missile crisis; escalation of VN war]
- How and when did the US rise to global leadership?

- What was the Truman Doctrine?
- How did the containment policy arise and what did it achieve?
- What were the elements of containment policy?
- Which was more successful: regional security pacts or economic and military assistance?
- How did US public opinion affect the cold war?
- How did Korea test the cold war consensus?
- What values characterized the cold war consensus, and how were they prioritized?
- What were the main alliances and conflicts of the Cold War?
- What were the elements of the cold war consensus among US policymakers?

McCormick, 6e, Ch.3: After the Missile Crisis & Vietnam War: Realism & Idealism in Foreign Policy
Chapter 4 from earlier edition:  [4e notes] [Lecture]
[Lectured 2017 on Nixon's geopolitics, rapprochement with China; and detente with USSR]
[Lectured 2017 on Carter, human rights focus; realism in Panama Canal Treaty; Camp David accords; and Iran]

- In what periods have US leaders contested US foreign policy?

- What were the challenges to the Cold War consensus?
- How did the Cuban missile crisis alter strategic relations between the superpowers?
- What were the far-reaching effects of the Vietnam War?
- What caused the end of the cold war consensus?
- Which presidents have been more realistic and which more idealistic in foreign policy?
- How did the US adjust to the aftermath of the Vietnam war?

Prof. Charles Tustin Kamps, "Analysis of Operation Eagle Claw," (Iranian hostage rescue attempt, 1980) blog, ACSC, Maxwell AFB.

Week 3
Presidential Doctrines:
McCormick, 6e, Ch.4: The Return & End of the Cold War: The Reagan & H. Bush Administrations
- How did the US turn to confronting the USSR?
- How did the US adjust to the collapse of the USSR?
- Was the post-cold war world a multi-polar world -- or one of hegemony?
- How has the US struggled to find a world role since the Vietnam war?

Nuclear deterrence strategy scene from "The Grand Design," Yes, Prime Minister series, (BBC TV, 3').
Satire on realism and idealism in the EEC: Yes, Minister series explains the EEC (BBC TV, 4')

Recommended for homework: find from CNN, Cold War, a TV documentary film series.

Week 4
McCormick 6e, Ch.5: Foreign Policy After the Cold War, Clinton and W. Bush Administrations [4e notes] [Lecture]
- How did the Clinton administration contrast with the W. Bush administration in foreign policy?
- Which of them applied more realism? Which more idealism? Which was more selective in focus?
- Have US presidents taken a stronger role in foreign policy leadership in the post cold war world?
- Contrast the diplomatic successes of Bush (41) and Clinton with the unilateralism of Bush (43).
- Was W. Bush (43) a different president before and after the 9/11/01 attacks?

McCormick, 6e, Ch. 6, Change and Continuity in Foreign Policy:  The Barack  Obama Administration [Instructor's outline] [Local PPT]
- Did the Obama administration's first year illustrate liberal internationalism -- or realism?
- To what degree does Obama in foreign policy resemble the H. Bush and Clinton administrations?
- To what degree did Obama in practice extend and fulfill the military commitments of the W. Bush administration?

The Trump administration: a first look
Initial press conference of President Trump with PM Theresa May, UK, 1/27/17 (NY Times, video)
- What issues were presented by the Prime Minister, and did she succeed in presenting British interests in the conference?
- When the President is considering NATO and relations with Russia, did the PM succeed in committing the US to NATO?
- Given that the Mexican President had cancelled a visit just before this conference, how did the PM handle a question on US foreign relations with Mexico?
- How did the President handle a question about torture?

The new practice of communication by tweeting:
Trump Tweet on UN 12-16-16

Arrival of US ambassador to the UN, Gov. Nikki Haley, 1/27/17 (NY Times, brief video)
- What does the US intend for management of the UN?
- What did she mean by "for those who don't have our back, we're taking names."
Somini Sengupta, "Nikki Haley Puts UN on Notice: US is 'Taking Names,'" NY Times, 1/27/17
- How much does the US contribute to the UN in cash or other effort?
- Is the US prepared to use this as leverage to force changes at the UN?

When restructuring is undertaken to change policy:
Kelly Magsamen, "What Trump's Restructuring of the National Security Council Means," The Atlantic Monthly, 1/29/17 [Reporter]
Eliot A. Cohen, "A Clarifying Moment in American History," The Atlantic Monthly, 01/29/17
Domenico Montanaro, "Spin Aside, Trump's National Security Council Has A Very Big Change." Washington Post, 1/30/17
Trump Tweet Mexico Jan 2017

Russia Today, "‘Worst so far’: Trump ‘hangs up’ on Australian PM after heated call, report says,", 2/2/17
"US-Australia refugee deal: Trump in 'worst call' with Turnbull,", 2/2/17
Reuters, "U.S. military probing more possible civilian deaths in Yemen raid,", 2/2/17
Trita Parsi, President, National Iranian American Council, "What Flynn Could Learn From Kerry About Iran," HuffPo, 2/2/17

Week 5
McCormick, Part 2: The Process of Policymaking
Civilian institutions:
McCormick, 6e, Ch.7: The President & The Making of Foreign Policy [3e notes]  [Lecture]
- What are the formal and informal powers of the presidency in foreign policy?
- To what degree is the presidency constrained - and by what institutions?

Constitutional language on foreign policy (Lecture) [Local PPT]
- Compare the enumerated & inherent congressional and presidential authority in foreign affairs.
- How much of Art. 1 Sect. 8 concerns itself with trade compared to force?
- How far do the emphases of the Founders reflect the context of their times rather than ours?

McCormick, 6e, Ch.8: Congressional Prerogatives and the Making of Foreign Policy, [3e notes]
- In what ways can the congress compete with the president in setting foreign policy?

TEST 1, see Dates page; covers all the above.  May include multiple choice, identifications, essay questions and world map quiz.

Week 6
Diplomatic Institutions:
McCormick, 6e, Ch.9: The Diplomatic & Economic Bureaucracies: Duplication or Specialization [3e notes]?
Article, Gingrich Criticizes State Dept, & Response. [Reporter]
- Do the many rival diplomatic and economic bureaucracies make foreign policy more complex or more effective?
- Which bureaucracies are the most powerful in foreign policy?

Lecture on diplomatic, military and intelligence bureaucracies
- Which agencies are most influential on intermestic issues such as trade?
- Which agencies are more influenced by presidency or congress?
- How powerful are the military compared to civilian agencies?
- How do political appointees interact with career professionals?
- How do the time horizons of military and civilian agencies create tension with political appointees?

When feasible: Test 1 returned, reviewed, with exemplary written answers presented | Scores page

Military institutions:
McCormick, 6e, Ch.10: The Military & Intelligence Bureaucracies: Pervasive or Accountable? [Reporter] [Lecture]
- Do the military and intelligence bureaucracies dominate foreign policy?
- Can the military and intelligence bureaucracies be consolidated under one command?
- Can the intelligence community be held accountable without compromising national security secrecy?
- How close did the world come to nuclear war in the Cuban missile crisis?

Aaron Blake, "The timeline of Michael Flynn's resignation looks bad for the Trump White House," Washington Post, 2/14/17
Andrew Roth, "Russian lawmakers rush to the defense of Trump’s ex-national security adviser," Washington Post, 2/14/17
- What position did Gen. Flynn hold in the Presidential staff, and why was his resignation forced?
- Why did the Russian government not respond harshly to the sanctions imposed by the Obama administration?
- What prohibits a private citizen from engaging in US foreign relations? What is the risk to the US, if any?

Humorous European responses to President Trump's call of America First (I think Finland has the voice best)

Current US foreign policy speeches:
President Obama, "A New Beginning," Cairo Address to the Muslim world, 2009, CSPAN & YouTube, high quality | Text of speech | Wikipedia, gives context [Fuller, Berry]
Ben Wedeman, "Obama's Cairo Speech: A Look Back," CNN on YouTube, 5 year retrospective, 2013 [Frazer]
- What is the significance of remarks on coexistence with the Umma (Muslim world)?

Review of American values in foreign policy, using Ch. 1 [local PPT] in the light of Obama address.
President Obama's Weekly Address "We can out-compete with any nation," 22 Jan. '11 [4' video mp4 on White House web] [Transcript]
President Obama's address, "Competing in the Global Economy," 21 Jan. '11 [20' video mp4 on White House web, but begin after 5'] [Transcript] [Sullivan]
- How do his domestic economic issues affect foreign relations?
- How does competing economically affect our relations with other nation states?
- Which nations did the President visit and why?
- Why did the President speak from a GE plant in upstate NY?
- Why does the President link trade with new jobs rather than losing jobs? Is he right?
- Is the US merely "leading from behind" - or is there a strategy behind supporting allies to take a lead in public?

Week 7
Informal Institutions:
McCormick, 6e, Ch.11: Political Parties, Bipartisanship & Interest Groups [3e notes] Lecture [Reporters]
- Was there much bipartisan consensus on foreign policy postwar before the Vietnam war dissension?
- Was the consensus in fact limited to the Eisenhower years?
- What challenges to the bipartisan consensus developed even after the Vietnam war?
- What types of issues divided the parties in the 1980s and 1990s?
- What types of interest groups engage with US foreign policy?
- Do these interest groups have much effect on foreign policy?
- Do the interest groups involved differ between military and intermestic or trade issues?

McCormick, 6e, Ch.12: The Media, Public Opinion & the Foreign Policy Process [3e notes] [Reporters] Lecture 
- Do the media, parties and interest groups have much effect on foreign policy?
- What is the distinction between old news and new news?
- Are the media actors, accomplices or are media and government mutually exploitative?
- Is the public too ignorant to affect foreign policy?
- Does public opinion vary with moods, and if so does this invalidate it as a factor in policy?
- What types of opinion are there in foreign policy?

Donald J. Trump, "Foreign Policy Speech," to the Center for the National Interest, 27 April 2016, Trump campaign website. [Dixon]
- What is candidate Trump's critique of Obama's foreign policy?

- What is candidate Trump's proposal to reform US foreign policy?
- How does the free trade policy of the period since 1945, among both parties, contrast with that of President Trump?
Politico staff, "Full text: Donald Trump's speech on fighting terrorism," Politico, 08/15/16 [Ohliger]
- What is Trump's critique of Obama's anti-terrorism policy?
- How many terrorist attacks have there been on the US in the past 8 years?
- What is Trump's proposed set of anti-terrorism solutions?

Week 8
McCormick, 6e, Ch.13: American Foreign Policy Values & the Future | Lecture w/ PPT [3e notes] [Discussion]
- How far is the nation divided on foreign policy?
- How far is the elite divided -- and far from the masses?
- Can a new foreign policy consensus be constructed?
- How will American values guide foreign policy over the next few decades?
- Will the US remain a superpower for a further generation?

Pevehouse & Goldstein, 1: The Globalization of International Relations [Discussion]
- How do international security affairs and international political economy form IR?
- What do the three core principles of IR mean?
(dominance, reciprocity and identity as solutions to obtaining collective goods)
- How many state actors are there in IR?
- What types of nonstate actors are there in world politics?
- What are the four levels of analysis in IR?
- What is globalization?
- What were the characteristics of the Cold War?
- What have been the characteristics of US foreign policy post Cold War?

Pevehouse & Goldstein, 2: Realist Theories [Discussion]
- How does realism conceptualize IR in terms of power?
- How do GDP and military force indicate long term power?
- How does anarchy (lack of world governance) affect each state's drive for its own interests?
- How far do seven great powers control world forces and capabilities?
- How are wars caused, according to power transition theory?
- Can hegemony provide stability but with what drawbacks?
- What is the role of alliances in world order, and how stable are they at the moments?
- How do bargaining and game theory help to maintain order?
- Are states rational actors seeking their interests?

The Trump foreign policy team: a second look [Harrelson, Martin, Law, Ohliger, Berry]
Peter Baker and Michael R. Gordon, "Trump Chooses H.R. McMaster as National Security Adviser," New York Times, 2/20/17
Greg Jaffe, "For a Trump adviser, an odyssey from the fringes of Washington to the center of power," Washington Post, 2/20/17
Steven Simon and Daniel Benjamin, "The Islamophobic Huckster in the White House," Opinion-Editorial, New York Times, 2/24/17
Anthony Zurcher, "Trump's 'brain' Steve Bannon emerges from the shadows", BBC News, 2/24/17
Andrew Higgins, "Trump Embraces ‘Enemy of the People,’ a Phrase With a Fraught History," New York Times, 2/26/17

Week 9, Theories of International Relations

Research Design: see Dates page for due date and then bring your design to class. [Reporters]
- Explain the nature of the problem or issue to be explored
- Discuss the approach you will take to investigating it and the nature of your coverage (periods, states, institutions, elections, parties, countries, presidencies)
- What differences, causes or consequences do you expect to find?
- Provide a list of the main sources you find useful.

Research Design: simple template PPT
Pevehouse & Goldstein, 3: Liberal and Social Theories [Reporter]
- To what degree can rational states cooperate in building norms and regimes?
- Can reciprocity build on common interests?
- How can groups of states get each other to pay for collective goods?
- How can collective security protect states from an aggressor?
- How can foreign policy seek a strategy, and how is that influenced by domestic political interests?
- How do legislatures reconcile interests and public opinion in setting policy?
- Does the democratic peace principle mean that democracies will not wage war?
- What are the influences of individuals and groups of decisionmakers on foreign policy?
- What critiques of realism are presented by Constructivists, Postmodernists, and Marxists?
- What do peace studies scholars and (varieties of) feminist scholars offer to IR?
Monty Python, feminism and revolutionaries, from film, The Life of Brian (BBC, YouTube, 3')

Connecting military strategy to political goals
"Limited Aims,"Sketches for Book VIII, chapter 5 [Notes] [Local page]  [Bottoms]
"War is an Instrument of Policy," Sketches for Book VIII, chapter 6 of On War. (1832-34). [Local page]  [Fuller]
[Note, this free, Victorian translation by Graham is not as good as the modern book by Howard & Paret -- recommended.]

Guest Essay on Just War by Lt. Col. Wray Johnson, PhD. [+] [Harrelson X & Frazer]
- Should wars be conducted only where tied to political ends?
- How can wars, which cause destruction, be said to be rational?
- Is there such a thing as a just war?
- How can wars be conducted justly, if at all?
- How has the theory of justice in war developed over the centuries?
- When is it justified to use heavy firepower in a heavily populated area?
- Was the decision to pull US troops out of Mogadishu (after minor losses) justified?

Monty Python, Romans Go Home, from the film, Life of Brian (BBC, YouTube, 3')

Week 10

TEST 2 on all materials listed or discussed before the test. See Dates page

Pevehouse & Goldstein, 4: Conflict, War and Terrorism [PPT] [Reporter]
- What types of war are there?
- Where are the major, current war zones of the world?
- What causes war at each level of analysis: the individual, the domestic, the interstate and the global level?
- Can cycles of war and peace be detected?
- How are conflicts caused by ideas, nationalism, ethnicity, religion, interest?
- Do what degree is Islam a focus of conflicts today?
- What types of conflict of interest are there, and which is the most dangerous?
- What are the uses of conventional forces of the land, sea and air?
- How does terrorism work in the context of asymmetrical war?
- What types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are there, and how do they differ?
- How do WMD delivery systems differ?
- How do WMD proliferate and how can we make this safer?
- Why stock WMD if we cannot use them in practice?
- How do states control their military?

Monty Python, Jewish revolutionaries (in the style of British trade unionists) ponder what have the Romans ever done for us? (BBC, YouTube, 3')
Patrick Stewart sketch: what has the ECHR ever done for us? (2016, during Brexit debate, The Guardian, YouTube, 4')

Might versus Right:
Curtis v.1, Hugo de Groot, "Grotius", On the Rights of War and Peace, classic author on the just war and international law. [Lecture] [Martin]

When feasible: Test 2 returned, with exemplary written answers presented | scores page

PBS: Nixon's China Game; film. [Logically fits in a previous week, but shown here after test 2, or later]

Training for research project, with references and audiovisual presentation; see Dates page & Requirements page

Week 11
Explanation of research project: see Dates page and Requirements page
Check Dates page for Assessment Day: Wednesday classes are moved to Friday on that date.

Pevehouse & Goldstein, 5: Trade and Finance [Reporter]
- How can we distinguish between liberalism and mercantilism in international trade?
- Why would two countries choose to trade instead of maintaining autarky?
- How does the theory of comparative advantage work?
- Should governments interfere with free markets internationally -- why and when?
- Who gains or loses from protectionism? From sanctions?
- What are the duties of the WTO?
- Are bilateral agreements more useful than regional agreements?
- Is there any cartel that can threaten the US economy?
- What role is there for interest groups and corporations in international political economy?
- How can world trade rules be enforced without a world government?
- How did the present world economy develop?
- How do currencies and financial markets provide liquidity for world trade?
- How should currencies and markets be regulated?
- What are the roles of central banks, the world bank, and the IMF?
- How are international debts recorded and regulated?
- What are the roles of multinational corporations (MNCs) and foreign direct investment (FDI)?
- What are the tensions in host and home country relations?

Pevehouse & Goldstein, 6: International Organization, Law and Human Rights [Reporter]
Please look ahead and volunteer to present the ancient Greek readings.

Assignment: China - "The Week That Changed The World", USC U.S.-China Institute, YouTube, 58'
Richard Nixon's visit to China in February 1972 changed the course of history — reshaping the global balance of power and opening the door to the establishment of relations between the People's Republic and the United States.

PBS, American Experience, film. 2000. Nixon's China Game: The Week That Changed the World, YouTube, Part 1 [Notes]. (other parts follow) | Quiz
- Should a rising power whose ideology is repugnant, be isolated or accommodated?
- Should diplomacy be conducted personally by presidents -- or institutionally by diplomats?
- Should diplomacy be conducted in secrecy or by "open covenants, openly arrived at"?

Richard Nixon's 1972 trip to China showing some of his negotiation preparations and tactics; brief excerpt taken from the 2006 BBC documentary "The War of the World" by Niall Ferguson; YouTube, 4'
Monty Python, English knights meet the insulting French, from film, Monty Python and the Holy Grail (BBC, YouTube, 6')

Week 12
Forum for any registration issues and courses available.
Explanation of the course rotation and courses offered for next term; and interviews with academic adviser for pre-registration advising.

Issues of democracy, moderation and empire:
How Many Revolting Lesbians Should be Slaughtered -- or Enslaved?
Thucydides, Peloponnesian Wars: [Maps] [Guide]
- What can Thucydides tell us about the universal difficulties of relations among nations?
Recommended: Rex Warner's paperback translation is much more readable, and it is cheap.

"Pericles' Funeral Oration," Thuc 2.34-46 (ca. 430 BC) [Text at Fordham University] [Baumgartner]
Note: Comments on Constitution begin at 2.37
Pericles' Funeral Oration, spoken text and slideshow (YouTube, 18')
- Despite initial losses, why do democratic citizens fight?

- Do democracies initiate wars?  Does the current president have much in common with Pericles?
Compare this speech to motivate troops in battle, as a vastly superior enemy approaches:
Speech of Queen Elizabeth I to the troops at Tilbury, 1588 (Anne Marie Duff, The Virgin Queen, BBC, 2005, YouTube, 2')
William Shakespeare, Speech of Henry V to his troops on St. Crispin's eve, "For he who sheds his blood with me shall be my brother!" (Kenneth Brannaugh, film 1989, fiction, YouTube, 3')

"Mytilene Debate" Thuc 3.8-14 (ca. 428 or 427 BC) [Text at Boston Leaders]
Skim preamble; and read speeches of Cleon. [Harrelson
] & speeches of Diodotus, son of Eucrates [J.Law] (in same debate).
Summarize in your own words, and act out the speeches, in character.

Wikipedia on Cleon (there is little known on Diodotus, son of Eucrates) [Compton X]
Mytilenean Debate re-enactment, from "The War That Never Ends," (BBC, 1991, YouTube, 5')

- Is realism or idealism exemplified by ancient Greek diplomacy?
- How many revolting Lesbians should be slaughtered?
- What arguments can be advanced by war hawks and peace doves in a crisis?

"Melian Dialogue" Thuc 5.84-112 (ca. 416 BC). [ Text at Mt. Holyoke College] [Dixon-Bottoms X of Athens versus Sullivan-Berry X of Melos]
Summarize in your own words, and act out the speeches, in character.
Melian Dialogue re-enactment, from "The War That Never Ends," (BBC, 1991, YouTube, 5')
The Rugged Pyrrhus, Spoken tutorial with slides on Melian Dialogue (YouTube, 4')

Melian Dialogue in Wikipedia
- In foreign relations, does might make right -- or is there some room for morality?

Compare these speeches of the ancient Greek empire with contemporary presidential speeches, such as:
President Bush addresses Congress 20 Sep. 2001, declaring "Freedom at War with Fear" and announcing the Global War on Terror (audio file); "Justice will be done"; hails widow of a hero, and British PM; at 8' he turns to describe Al Qaida; this version lacks the final 2 minutes.

President W. Bush, televised speech from oval office after 9/11; at 3' addresses terrorists and those who support them.

President W. Bush, "Axis of Evil" State of the Union Speech to Congress, Jan. 2002, YouTube, excerpts 4' | Fuller version, 7'

President Ronald Reagan, "Evil Empire" speech excerpt, Youtube, 4'

"Let us be aware that while they [Soviets] preach the supremacy of the state, declare its omnipotence over individual man, and predict its eventual domination of all peoples on the Earth, they are the focus of evil in the modern world.
It was C. S. Lewis who, in his unforgettable ''Screwtape Letters'', wrote: [...]
So, in your discussions of the nuclear freeze proposals, I urge you to beware the temptation of pride -- the temptation of blithely declaring yourselves above it all and label both sides equally at fault, to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire, to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself from the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil."
Research project due: see Dates page and Requirements page
Week 13
Pevehouse & Goldstein, 7: North-South Relations 
- How much poverty and hunger are found in the global South?
- How much income per head per year is found across regions of the South
- How does urbanization affect the development of the South?
- How do the lives of women differ across the South from the North?
- How does migration affect the South and the North?
- How do economies and polities develop?
- To what degree are former colonies still hampered by their colonial legacy?
- How have development patterns differed in the NICS, India and China?
- What roles have been layed by FDI, North-South debt, and IMF conditionality?
- Is foreign assistance a significant factor in development?

Pevehouse & Goldstein, 8: Environment and Technology 
- Is interdependence a convincing thesis?
- How can the atmosphere be managed as a commons?
- How is biodiversity relevant to longterm human survival?
- Are forests and oceans interdependent?
- How much pollution is put forth by human sources?
- What forms of natural resource shortages could bring states in to conflict?
- How do population trends threaten economic and peaceful development?
- What threats are emerging from global diseases and information systems?
- What global agreements have been made to secure the biosphere, and how likely is it that the global community can build upon these?

Illustrated briefings by students of their research projects | Advice 
Examples from past seniors' capstone presentations (see Rainey, McCollum and Pierce for model PPT files)
Course evaluations

Week 14
Briefings timetable | Advice
Examples from past seniors' capstone briefings (see Rainey, McCollum and Pierce for model PPT files)
Maps exercise.
FINAL: comprehensive examination, for two hours, in Finals week. See Dates page.