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PSC 207: Public Administration,
Timetable of readings, questions and links

Page revised 8/12/19, with Canvas, Calendar and Google statement, by Jeremy Lewis.
Week: [01] [02] [03] [04] [Test1] [05] [06] [07] [08] [09] [10] [Test 2] [11] [ePaper] [12] [13] 14] [Final]

Please check the following, using your Hawks identity only:

In summer, 3 semester weeks are compressed into each summer week, and each week of readings begins on Wednesday with a test each Tuesday following; each textbook chapter (though not GoogOlympics event) should be noted in 4-5 paragraphs, and each short reading in one paragraph, submitted in the Google form for reports on readings.

Week 1: the nature of public administration [Discussion notes]
Introduction to syllabus
Lecture on Bureaucracy
Starling 1, Nature of Public Administration  [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- How can we define bureaucracy, and how is it separate from the other branches?
- How is public administration different from private management?
- How is the work of a public manager different from a businessman?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 1. Is contemporary public administration theory more influential than its classical counterpart?
YES: Jocelyne Bourgnon (2007) [Reporter]
- Have movements such as the NPM and DEG analysts advanced our understanding of public administration beyond the classical theorists?

NO: Herbert Kaufman (1956)[Reporter]
- Can we find universal, core values of public administration?

Week 2: administration under national law [Discussion notes]
Starling 2, The Political-Legal Environment of Administration[Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- How do agencies connect their management strategy to a political strategy?
- What steps are needed to implement a program?
- How does an agency make an interpretive rule?
- How are agencies checked by the public, Congress and appointees?
- What does a court consider in checking an agency?
- What are the bases of individual powers in administration?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 2. Can public administration be international in scope?
YES: Woodrow Wilson (1887) [Reporter]
- Can Americans learn from Europeans the art and principles of public administration, to reform US government?
- How (if at all) should that art be adapted for the US?

NO: B. Guy Peters (1990) [Reporter] 
- What are the difficulties of comparing public administration across different countries?
- How confident can we be that lessons from abroad are useful or applicable to our own administration?

Maurice McTigue, "Rolling Back Government: Lessons from New Zealand". [Reporter]
Maurice McTigue, speech notes, AWAC, Tues. 22 Oct. 2013 | speeches on YouTube and online
- Can the free market solve problems when a small country loses its primary export markets?
- Can a free market model from one country be exported to another?
- Can non-profits be placed in competition, in education?
- Can government functions be contracted out?
- Can performance of public officials be measured and incentivized?

OMBwatch, "The Budgetary Control Act of 2011: FAQs" [Reporter]

Week 3: federal, state and local relations
Starling 3, Intergovernmental Relations [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- What types of jurisdictions are there in the US?
- What eras have existed of federal-state relations?
- How have federal grants evolved?
- How has the role of the Supreme Court evolved?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides
Issue 3. Is bureaucracy the best option for organizing government?
YES: Charles Goodsell (2003) [Reporter]
- What criticisms of progressive (reformed) bureaucracies does Goodsell find, and are these really common?
- What is Goodsell's defense of bureaucracies?
- What evidence is there that traditional, progressive bureaucracy works better than the alternatives?

NO: Ralph Hummel (2007) [Reporter]
-What is wrong with bureaucracies' treatment of citizens?
- What evidence does Hummel find for his point of view?
- How does Hummel's evidence compare with Goodsell's?

Dr. and Mrs. Lewis invite current and former students, with friends, to their home for an annual dinner party at home, on Sunday; see Calendar for any changes, and check email for driving directions.
High resolution images found here | Low resolution images here

Week 4: how can we behave ethically in public service?
Starling 4, Administrative Responsibility and Ethics  [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- What to Madison were "auxiliary precautions"?
- What are the core values of public administration?
- What makes a customer-driven program?
- What are the key ideas of the New Paradigm?
- Can you sue a civil servant for wrong doing?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides
Issue 4. Is it possible to balance efficiency and equity in public policy?
YES: Kristen Norman-Major (2011) [Reporter]
- Is efficiency too limited a goal for the public sector?
- Can a Hicks/Kaldor optimum tell us more than a Pareto optimum?
- Is utilitarianism missing out on the issue of whose utility is being increased?
- Is efficiency only a secondary criterion that presupposes a primary goal?

NO: Julian Le Grand (1990) [Reporter]
- Is efficiency only a secondary goal for creating utility?
- Does this mean that there is no simple trade-off between efficiency and equity?

Week 5: should an official tell the public?
From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides
Issue 15. Should whistleblowing be encouraged in the public service? [PPT]
- What defines a whistleblower?
- Can whistleblowers protect citizens from official malfeasance?
- Do whistleblowers face retaliation from their organizations and colleagues?
- Should whistleblowing in public service be encouraged?
- What do the cases of David Graham (on Vioxx, at FDA, 2004) and Jesselyn Radack (on John Walker Lindh, at DOJ, 2001) show us about the subject?

YES: Tim Eaton and Michael Akers (2007) [Reporter]
- In what ways did scandals damage the World Bank and United Way (and other nonprofits)?
- How has the Sarbanes-Oxley Act affected governance of nonprofits?
- Before SOX, how many nonprofits had a whistleblower policy in place?
- What laws (1863, 1989, 1994, 2002) frame the debate on whistleblowing?
- How has the Supreme Court (2006) ruled on free speech within employment?
- To what degree do tipoffs expose fraud in organizations?
- What types of complaint mechanisms are useful in organizations?
- How can confidentiality be balanced with fair process?

NO: HL Laframboise (1991) [Reporter]
- Can "vile wretches" do more damage than good to public organizations by going public?
- Is there a problem with US civil service culture that causes malfeasance?
- Is Canadian public administration less in need of whistleblowers?
- Are whistleblowers often at odds with peer morals?
- Should officials limit their complaints to the internal processes?
- Should officials complaining publicly be willing to accept career sacrifice?

GoogOlympics Event: Whistle-blower reveals Presidential phone call unethical

For TEST 1, see CalendarA mixture of multiple choice, identifications and essays, will cover all materials above this line.

Issue 16. Are external controls effective tools for ensuring principled conduct?
YES: Victor Thompson (1975)[Reporter]

NO: H. George Frederickson (1993) [Reporter]

Week 6: how can we plan for the future?
Starling 5, Planning  [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- What is the relationship of planning, policies and goals?
- What is the rational planning approach?
- What is the logical incremental approach?
- What are vision plans, urban & contingency plans?
- How should an organization manage a crisis?
- What is the trade-off between prevention and services?
- How can an agency measure performance?

Prudential TV ad, Dan Gilbert, “it won’t happen to me”, section "Planning for the Future", shows most people see both good and bad life events in past, but optimistically, mostly good (yellow) ones in future.
The Prudential Action Gap Experiment (YouTube, 1')
The Prudential dominoes experiment (YouTube, 1')
The Prudential balloons ad (YouTube, 1')
The Prudential marshmallow experiment (YouTube, 1')

Prudential, "Game of Odds," assessing the risk of being dealt each card

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 14. Do we need more budget flexibility for discretionary spending compared to entitlements?
YES: Ian Hill, Holly Stockdale and Brigette Courtot (2004) [Reporter]
- How did the SCHIP program survive budgetary famine, and does it show sufficient discretion was accorded to officials running the program?

NO: Lyndon Johnson (1964) [Reporter]
- How did President Johnson argue for expanding domestic entitlement programs when spending heavily on the war in Vietnam?

Test 1 returned with exemplary paragraphs presented (during this, nobody takes notes or records discussion)

Week 7: how can we make complex choices?
Starling 6, Decision Making. [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
Custom Lecture on the rational comprehensive model of decision-making versus the incremental model (with examples that are not in Starling).
- What steps must managers take to make decisions?
- What analytical techniques help in making decisions?
- Is it better to explore all possible choices - or just a few?
- How is it different to make decisions in a crisis, compared to a routine situation?
- How do we decide whether benefits/costs are better soon or in the future?
- Does it matter who benefits, at whose cost?
- How does a manager control for biases?
- What role does research play in decisionmaking?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 5. Do bureaucrats have more influence on public policy than other branches of government do?
YES: US House Report on Hurricane Katrina (2006) [Reporter]

NO: Douglas Amy (2007)[Reporter]

Issue 6. Is it possible to coordinate federal, state and local governments in a way that allows policy making to be more efficient?
YES: Jenna Bednar (2011)[Reporter]

NO: Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman (2008) [Reporter]

Inside the FBI: Fedoras to Flak Jackets (video, part)

Week 8: how can we organize the public service?
Starling 7, Organizing[Lecture on principles, with PPT] 
- What are the elements of organizational design?
- What are the scalar principle, and span of control?
- What are Max Weber's key features of the bureaucratic structure?
- What are the weaker characteristics of bureaucracy?
- How does a matrix organization function?
- How do teams differ from networks?
- What causes reorganizations?
- How should you design a new organization?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 8. Should government be run like a business?
General questions:
- Is there some way to assess public and private delivery of the same services?
- Do market forces always produce efficient allocation of resources?
- Can we identify specific inefficiencies in a bureaucracy - rather than simply an ideological critique?
- Are there some functions which are consistently delivered better by private firms and others by public servants?
- Are there natural monopolies that need to be run as utilities, since no competition is feasible?
- Are there functions for which an agency works better than either a public bureaucracy or a private firm?
- Are there functions for which a public-private partnership works better than either system working alone?

YES: Julia Beckett (2000) [Reporter]
NO: Jim Powell (2010) [Reporter]
-  Did the British National Health Service produce an inefficient bureaucracy, with long waits for medical treatment?
- Can it be compared with Soviet state enterprise?
- Does Amtrak provide an example of state bureaucracy in the US that is inefficient?
- Would privatization be more efficient?

Issue 9. Should governments use the private sector to deliver public services?
YES: Leonard Gilroy (2010)[Reporter]

NO: Paul Verkuil (2007)[Reporter]

- Check Calendar for due date for Research Design

Week 9: how can improve leadership skills?
Starling 8, Leading. [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- Distinguish between visible and invisible aspects of program management.
- What types of group objectives are there?
- What types of leadership style are there?
- What can motivation and training achieve?
- How does the humanist school improve performance?
- How can a manager lead change?
- How does organizational development bring cultural change?

Inside the FBI: Fedoras to Flak Jackets (video)

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 7. Do bureaucrats need to be politically neutral to be effective?
YES: David Lewis (2007) [Reporter]
- Are political appointees or career managers more effective in their units' success?
- Could one generalize from the results in the W. Bush administration?

NO: William West (2005) [Reporter]
- Is West refining our modern interpretation of neutral competence rather than simply refuting it?
- How does he say Heclo treats neutral competence?
- Should civil servants avoid all political biases, or should they simply serve all political masters?

Issue 12. Is it possible to motivate workers in a manner that increases job satisfaction in the public sector?
YES: James Perry and Lyman Porter (1982) [Reporter]
- What variables affect motivation of the employee?
- What are the effects of the characteristics of the individual, the job, the work environment, and the external environment?
- Which variables can be measured?
- Which variables can be controlled?

NO: Seong Soo Oh and Gregory Lewis (2009) [Reporter]
- Can Performance Appraisal Systems (PAS) motivate not only extrinsically motivated staff but also the intrinsically motivated staff?
- Why have some  departments (DHS and DOD) have proceeded furthest with pay-for-performance systems?
- Do data from the 2000 Merit Principles survey help us test this?
- How many staff agree that PAS improves their motivation?

Fictional exemplar of leadership in crisis decisionmaking
"I Spy Apocalypse," MI5/Spooks series (BBC-TV) [updated link]
- Does Tom use comprehensive or proximate search methods in making decisions?
- What dilemmas does Tom face in compliance with law and constitution?
- In what ways does he use leadership to motivate the team?
- In what ways is Tom an exemplar of public management?
- In what ways does Tom use participation within the team and when does he limit it?
- When dissent breaks out, how does Tom prepare to handle it if necessary?

Week 10: how can we put into effect the policies?
Starling 9, Implementation. [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- Why do new social programs create great challenges?
- How does game theory explain implementation?
- How does privatization affect government's role in society?
- What are the costs and benefits of contracting out?
- How is the acquisition process regulated?
- What is the Total Quality Management approach?
- How can the PDCA cycle improve administration?
- What is the objective of compliance management?
- How can backward mapping and reengineering change an organization?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 11. Is employment equity necessary?
YES: President Kennedy, EO 10925 (1961) [Reporter]
- What are President Kennedy's purposes in setting up his committee?
- What modern rationales are not included in the historic EO?
- Who composes the committee members?
- Does the EO apply only to agencies or does it include labor unions' practices?
- Why would this be done by EO instead of legislation?
- What sanctions are offered?
- How quickly will be EO become effective?

NO: Anthony Kennedy, Ricci v. DiStefano (2009) [Reporter]
- What were the circumstances that led to the suit?
- Who are the parties to the suit, and what is the complaint?
- How is the Civil Rights Act cited formally?
- How did the lower courts rule, before appeal to the Supreme Court?
- Did the city violate Title VII of the CRA - and if so, why?
- What were the cross motions filed?
- What evidence suggests whether the tests were objective and tailored to the jobs?
- How did the multiple choice and oral tests differ, and on what were they based?
- How many whites, black and Hispanics were promoted to Lieutenant or to Captain?
- What arguments were brought up against the tests?
- How did the city's CSB rule?
- How did the lower courts rule - did the district and the appeals courts uphold the city?
- Did the Supreme Court uphold the city (and hence black firefighters) - or reverse (for the white & Hispanic firefighters)?

For TEST 2, see Calendar Expect a mixture of multiple choice, identifications and essays, covering all materials above this line.

Week 11: how can we manage people?
Starling 10, Human Resources Management. [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
[Evaluation Discontinued]
- What have been the six periods of federal personnel management?
- Which statutes have reshaped personnel management?
- How has the US supreme court affected privacy rights?
- How does culture affect organizational performance?
- How can managers use symbolism to lead?
- What are the questions of human resource planning?
- What are the major personality traits?
- How does collective bargaining affect the public sector?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 17. Should public employees have collective bargaining rights?
YES: Amanda Huffman (2011) [Reporter]
- Does experience in Wisconsin indicate that employees need collective bargaining?
- How does collective bargaining provoke conflict in politics?
- How does the public sector differ from the private in terms of the need for unions?
- How was the legal right to collective bargaining established?

NO: Daniel DiSalvo (2010) [Reporter]
- Does experience in New Jersey indicate that states are better off without collective bargaining?

Issue 10. Does performance management lead to better policy outcomes?
YES: 103rd Congress, GPR Act (1993) [Reporter]
- What are the provisions and purposes of the Government Performance Review Act?
- Are Federal managers disadvantaged by confusing program goals?
- How can performance reviews be instituted?
- How can the federal government promote better service for clients?
-How are program goals liked to plans and measures?
- How can pilot programs be set up?

NO: Robert Behn (2002) [Reporter]
- What psychological barriers are in the way of performance management?
- Is performance management actually useful politically?
- Do citizens think about performance beyond just their personal service by government?
- How does thinking differ among citizens, legislators, officials, policy officers, and assistant-secretaries.

Test 2 returned with exemplary paragraphs presented
For research ePaper: see Calendar, Citations APSA page, and Requirements page
Note that, for readability, ePapers are now delivered to an Upload folder on Google Drive as well as to Turnitin.

Thanksgiving week: no classes

Week 12: how can we manage records?

Federal records management, and the development of policy
Records of information are the stock in trade of bureaucracy. Control of these records is a live issue in many countries.
- How are US officials permitted to hold -- and withhold -- information?
- Given that US official records are paid for by taxpayers, should they be made public free, or at a price?
- What official records are to be withheld from the public?
- How has US policy developed since 1946?
- How has US policy been adopted in varied forms by other countries?
- How has freedom of information policy morphed into a broader concept of transparency?

One or more of these may be given in class:

JRT Lewis, Lecture on the development in policy cycles of federal information policy [PPT]
- What characterized the process of developing modern US official information policy?
- How did each policy cycle happen, and why?  What were the consequences in each decade?
- How was the law structured?
- Who supported or opposed the law at each stage?
- What were the main problems of implementing the law?
- What do we mean by the transition from FOIA to egovernance and official social media?

JRT Lewis, Lecture on the types of outward flows of official information [Lecture with PPT]
- What do we mean by the contrasts between processes that are formal/informal; mediated/unmediated; active/reactive/passive?
- What type of flow is represented by a public datastore? Wikileaks? A White House policy forum?
- Are Wikis, social media and datastores going to transform public administration and policymaking processes - or will they be merely incremental?

JRT Lewis, Keynote address for the International Seminar on Governance and Public Policy held on 27-28 June 2015 at St. Petersburg State University, Russia (YouTube, 15').

JRT Lewis " From Formal-passive to Informal-active Transparency: Freedom of Information, eGovernance and WikiLeaks," [PDF] paper presented to the First Global Conference on Transparency Research, Rutgers University, 19 May 2011. [Lecture with PPT]
JRT Lewis, " Electronic Access to Public Records," (2000b).
- How was the FOIA adapted to the Internet -- and how does the internet change the way official records are released to the public? [Lewis, 2000b, 2010a]
- In what ways did the W. Bush and Obama administrations contrast in their handling of official information? [Lewis, 2010b]

Articles on open government, freedom of information

Week 13: how can we manage official information?
Starling 12, Information Management. [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- Distinguish between data and information.
- What makes for high quality information?
- What decisions do managers need to make about info tech?
- What factors reduce distortion in communications?
- What biases may occur in in/formal info networks?
- How can data mining reveal relationships?
- How can we secure info networks?
- Give six types of info tech used to share info.
- Give 8 "C"s of effective communications.
- What decisions do managers need to make about info tech?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 18. Has e-governance had a dramatic influence on public administration?
YES: Sang Lee, Xin Tan and Silvana Trimi (2004) [Reporter]

NO: Victor Bekkers and Vincent Homburg (2007) [Reporter]

Issue 19. Should public agencies use social media to reach the citizenry?
YES: Peter Orszag memo (2010)[Reporter]

NO: Bev Godwin, Sheila Campbell, Jeffrey Levy and Joyce Bounds (2008) [Reporter]

Briefings of research by students: the issue; the research question; the arguments; evidence; and findings.

Week 14: how can we budget our resources to achieve goals?
Briefings of research
Starling 11, Public Financial management. [Lecture on principles, with PPT]
- What are the four phases of the budget cycle?
- When did the federal budget become annual?
- What is the scale of the federal budget?
- What does the federal budget spend most money on?
- Whence does the federal government derive its revenue?
- Distinguish between traditional and new performance budgeting.
- What are the two types of strategies in the budget process?
- Give the three pragmatic concepts of a tax system.
- What are the two legal categories of federal spending items?

From Miller & Walling, Taking Sides.
Issue 13. Should Incrementalism be the guiding budgeting philosophy of public agencies?
YES: Aaron Wildavsky and Naomi Caiden (1997) [Reporter]

NO: Aidan Kelly (1989) [Reporter]

Briefings of research by students: the issue; the research question; the arguments; evidence; and findings.

Finals week: where we show what we've learned
Exams: Comprehensive final exam,for two hours; see Calendar; expect multiple choice and essay questions, in classroom.