Handbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylor and Francis.
Outlines by R. Walker Garrett, 2005.
Northrop, Alan.2005. “E-Government: The URBIS Cities Revisited.” In Handbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylor and Francis.
Chapter 31, “E-Government: The URBIS Cities Revisited”, pp. 545-557
By: Alan Northrop
-URBIS I and II: Study on information technology among city homepages, computer use, and online usage statistics for 42 cities in the United States
-“E-government is the fastest growing application of Information Technology in the public sector” (p. 546).
-The examination of the URBIS cities involves examination of city homepages down to agency and department level web pages.
-The higher tech city homepages tend to be with larger cities, and the majority of the URBIS cities analyzed had populations of over 50,000.
-Compared with the URBIS data set are the Best of Web, homepages which tend to produce higher levels of technology and greater levels of service than other city e-governments.
-ICMA (International City/County Management Association)- this survey of data includes cities as small as 2500, and so represents a data pool with a greater range of variety with 3,700 cities and 423 counties.
-Taubman Center- E-government survey involving larger scale cities, the 70 largest metropolitan areas in the US.
-Scavo- Website survey involving 114 cities and 31 counties, conducted by EastCarolinaUniversity.
-It is now expected that a city will have a website, the new standard of technology involves how frequently the cities update and maintain their websites.
-“No feature is found on every city’s web page or even nearly every city’s web page” (p. 550) The best of web cities have more transaction service emphasis as far as their links are concerned as compared URBIS cities emphasizing access to information.
-The Internet is being considered as the next vehicle for participation for citizens, but we have to determine if the citizens will participate online, and if they do, could the political effect be a negative one.
-“…unlike reading a major newspaper or watching major network television news, a person who gets the majority of his or her political information from the Internet via chat rooms and websites may be getting a more biased, less tolerant, and more narrow political view” (p.553).
-In ranking based on features and online capabilities, the Best of Web is 1st, URBIS 2nd, and ICMA 3rd
-As we move into the future, the applicability of web features can be updated with several transaction features to increase political involvement such as online voter registration and links to contact elected and appointed officials.
-Part of the process of gaining interaction on the websites is to get the word out regarding its features and capabilities, so that the public will access and utilize the web page. Publicity is a major part of the promotion side of the website as many people may simply be uninformed of the existence of e-government with their municipality.
Mahler, Julianne G. and Regan, Priscilla. 2005. “Agency Internets and the Changing Dynamics of Congressional Oversight.”In Handbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylor and Francis.
Chapter 32, “Agency Internets and the Changing Dynamics of Congressional Oversight”, pp. 559-568
By: Julianne G Mahler and Priscilla M Regan

-Strong Internet presence agencies examined: Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

-Weak Internet presence agencies examined: The Department of Commerce and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

-Analysis method: Questioned those congressional staff in charge of oversight activities, compared the web page quality based on online features and performance.

-The “Observed effects of enhanced agency websites on casework [leads to] greater citizen use [which in turn leads to] slightly fewer casework requests” (p.562).

-Transforming the data received from agency internets into explanations of how an agency failed to meet objectives sometimes presents a problem.

-“No staff members in any of the four agencies were able to specify an instance in which an agency website was the original, unique source of an oversight topic” (p.563).

-Agency websites tend to provide more information on oversight topics or provide different opinions and critiques rather than creating new oversight topics.

-Websites are noted by congressional staffers as leading to increased amounts of information available for those addressing policies. Also, the availability allowed by agency websites helps to speed the process of information gathering, and “communication among agency, constituents, and staff is smoother and quicker as participants can so easily access material on agency websites” (p.564).

-“More information about agency operations [leads to] more participative and informed debate, more focused hearings, and more briefings and follow-up” (564).

-It appears that information presented on the agency web pages does not lead to micromanagement, but the findings of the interviews seemed to support the trend of “more monitoring of implementation” (p.566) because of the increase in programs information.

-Principal-agent theory: “Agency websites quite clearly reduce costs of time and effort that the principal needs to expend to achieve control over the agent. Our interviews suggest that agency websites advantage interest groups and minority staff more than others, especially more than committees” (p.567).

-As a network together, the agency websites and the information they provide so accessibly to everyone going to the sites helps also to expedite congressional oversight with the superior intelligence networks provided to congressional staffs.

-The staff interviewed conveyed the importance of the agency internets because of the consistency and frequency of visits, as well as, the influence such data has on briefings, communication between departments, and analysis of data.

Davis, Charles N.2005. “Privacy Considerations in Electronic Judicial Record: When Constitutional Rights Collide.” In Handbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylor and Francis.

Chapter 33, “Privacy Considerations in Electronic Judicial Records: When Constitutional Rights Collide” pp.569-579

By: Charles N. Davis

-As information technology develops with e-government, privacy issues arise with regards to judicial records, their accessibility by the public especially.
-A balance must be struck with the greater good being recognized when making decisions of whether to release or not release higher risk, somewhat confidential records to the public.

-While the Supreme Court recognizes a federal common law in support of the release of Judicial records to the public, they also recognize the control each court individually is endowed with.

-Common Law and Constitutional protection under the 1st Amendment

-Richmond Newspapers v Virginia

-Right for public to attend criminal trials affirmed, so in essence thisdecision confirms to right for the public to have access to judicial records.

-Challenges to Public Electronic Access to Judicial Records

-US Department of Justice v Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press

-Raised new question: “could an agency invoke privacy concerns to deny

access to public records compiled electronically, in large part because

they were compiled electronically?” (p. 571)

-New threats could evolve because of the publicity of judicial records such as the availability of levels of witness involvement to be seen which could put some in danger.

-“practical obscurity”

-“Despite the revolutionary ability of the computer, and of the Internet, to make information readily available to the citizenry, “practical obscurity” stands ready to limit its vast potential to democratize information” (p. 573).

-Two categories of information



-“To the Reporters Committee Court information is either about individuals or about government; when the two categories blend, the result, in the Court’s view, should almost always be nondisclosure” (p.573).

-“Developing a Model Written Policy Governing Access to Court Records”

-project led by funding through SJI (State Justice Institute)

-“public is public model”

-1st Amendment guarantees our right to access through whatever means, e-government or not to judicial records, with the means of protecting privacy already in place continuing as adequate measures of security.

-“practical obscurity” school of thought

-argues that rather than the true purpose of judicial records being open, that is for the public to critique the court system, there is a new door opened by e-filing of judicial records, scrutiny of individuals involved in the records.

-The Federal Courts support the openness of civil filings, yet place criminal files under the sphere of the practical obscurity model.

-New Jersey: Public Access Subcommittee

-Created in 1996, the committee conducted research for two years on the release of court records and came to the conclusion that “…privacy interests should neither preclude nor limit the public’s right to access non-confidential information in electronic form” (p. 575)

-“Public is public” model comes out on top after research compiled by the subcommittee.

-CCJ/COSCA guidelines

-Court records should remain open except under exclusions of confidentiality issues, and when exclusions are made, they must be made consistently and across the board giving no special regard to “approved” requesters.

-The guidelines “urge states to consider whether the request is “an appropriate use of public resources” (p. 578).

-Essentially, CCJ/COSCA guidelines allow the states to take their guidelines as recommendations and apply them on their own terms, case-by-case.

Musso, Juliet Ann and Weare, Christopher.2005. “Information Technology and Political Participation: A Comparative Institutional Approach.” In Handbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylor and Francis.
Chapter 34, “Information Technology and Political Participation: A Comparative Institutional Approach”, pp 581-596
By: Juliet Ann Musso and Christopher Weare

-Electronic Early Notification System (ENS)

-Los Angelesnew city charter incorporated technology to make the city more efficient.

-Model of Electronic Governance

-“New technology is theorized to improve individual capacity for political participation by lowering the costs of communication and easing access to the information required for political activity” (p.584).

-New technologies also have the ability to catch the attention of the citizen with things that are applicable to their interests, therefore, motivating citizens.

-The accessibility of e-government and the ease of communication which the internet allows for has the ability to mobilize citizens through its venues for organization.

-The range of citizen participation which ENS allowed for caused a devolution in decision-making authority as the neighborhood organizations were formed to address local issues and address the local reaction to larger scale issues.

-In order for participatory reform to take place, goals to include all of the constituency should be addressed such as “promoting an informed citizenry, broadening representation, involving citizens who would otherwise be disenfranchised due to socioeconomic inequalities, and empowering people by creating opportunities to affect government decisions and to self-govern” (p.587).

-When comparing the ENS historically with participatory reforms, we may draw five major lessons:

“1. Vaguely expressed goals and weak sanctions hamper participation reforms, 2. Participatory reforms are not politically neutral, 3. Public administrators often resist participatory programs, 4. Opportunities for participation are exercised differentially, and 5. Benefits from participation are difficult to measure and occur in the longer run” (pgs 588-590).

-The Information Technology Agency (ITA) faced problems with the development of ENS as they were hurt by fiscal constraints and had to take loans to finance the ENS development.

-Because of the different aspects of ENS project, its nature and the availability of technology, there was an “effect of narrowing the focus of ENS development to purely technological issues” (p.591).

-Problems facing the ENS

-developing broad/vague mandates to effective programs

-Vulnerability to implementation barriers

-ENS faces long standing structure of participation

-“In the short run, the informative and communicative advantages afforded by the Internet appear able to facilitate lower forms of democratic participation such as notification, public comment, and ‘thin’ forms of consultation best” (p.596).

Mullen, Patrick R.2005. “E-Government Performance-Reporting Requirements.” InHandbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylor and Francis.

Chapter 35, “E-Government Performance-Reporting Requirements”, pp.599-614
By: Patrick R. Mullen

-The development of IT performance-based laws encouraged the use of technology and e-government by arranging standards of performance around the utilization of e-government capacities and technologies.

-“The e-Government Act (e-GA) of 2002 includes promoting the use of the Internet and other IT to provide government services electronically; strengthening agency information security; and defining how to manage the federal government’s growing IT personnel needs” (pgs.600-601)

-Office of Electronic Government develops within the OMB

-GPRA “the Results Act”

-Use private-sector practices out goal setting and goal review for performance measurement.

-IT performance-based laws put in place

-Require performance-reporting, information must be converted into implementation.

-Performance Based Laws enacted by Congress

-Paperwork Reduction Acts of 1980 and 1995

-Not only reduce paperwork, but allow for easier public access to government information.

-Computer Security Act of 1987

-“…to improve the security, including privacy, of sensitive information in federal computer systems” (p.606).

-Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996

-“…to improve the productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness of federal programs through the improved acquisition, use, and disposal of IT resources” (p.607).

-Takes part in the evaluation of performance goals set involving agencies and IT needs.

-Government Paperwork Elimination Act of 1998

“…authorizes OMB to provide for acquisition and use of alternative IT by federal agencies. Alternative IT includes (1) electronic submission, maintenance, or disclosure of information as a substitute for paper and (2) electronic signatures in conducting government business through e-government transactions” (p.608).

Government Information Security Reform Act of 2001

-Provide Framework of controls over info resources

-Continued interoperability while maintaining security measures

-Management and oversight of related security risks

-Maintain and develop minimum controls

-Act as mechanism for improved oversight

-E-Government Act of 2002

“…to enhance the management and promotion of e-government services and processes” (p.610).

-Creates interagency committee for guidance of agency websites

-Public presentation of fed courts’ cases online

-Adherence to uniform security standards for info

-Private-public sector relationship between IT programs

-Federal agencies and OMB must file reports with Congress

-Six IT security weaknesses uncovered by Fiscal Year 2002 Report to Congress on Federal Government Information Security Reform

1. Lack of agency senior management attention to IT security

2. Nonexistent IT security performance measures

3. Poor security education and awareness

4. Failure to fully fund and integrate IT security into the capital planning and investment control process

5. Failure to ensure that contractor services are adequately secure

6.Failure to detect, report, and share information on vulnerabilities

(above IT security weakness from p. 611)

-Improvement on performance and accountability will help transform the technology of the federal government by maximizing the efficiency and abilities of IT.

-Agency track records before Congress, OMB, etc.

-decision making for spending level and expansion of IT internationally and among our e-government relies on these agency track records.

Parks, Jonathan D. and Schelin, Shannon H .2005."Assessing E-Government Inovation."

In Handbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylorand Francis.
Chapter 36, “Assessing E-Government Innovation”, pp.615-629
By: Jonathan D. Parks and Shannon H. Schelin
-“The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) and United Nations Division for Public Economies and Public Administration (UNDPEPA) have defined government as ‘utilizing the Internet and the world wide web for delivering government information and services to citizens’” (p.616).
-E-Government frameworks


-critical theory

-socio-technical systems

-global integration theories

-“The power of E-Government technology lies in its ability to even the playing field for all sizes and types of governments.

-Technology as a link between citizens and government.

-IT will spread from one area or level of government to another as the benefits are seen and other groups become interested.

-The decentralization theory and e-government have a relationship as each is able to support the other’s prospects for development.

-The lower level bureaucrats may eventually lose their jobs to computer programs which may perform the basic tasks needed.

-Five stages of e-government:

-Emerging web presence

-Enhanced web presence
-Interactive web presence
-Transactional web presence
-Seamless government
-vertical and horizontal integration
-Website orientation
-Administration-oriented website
-User oriented
-Hypotheses of variables on E-Government
1. Population size will positively influence e-government capacity.
2. Growth rate of jurisdictions will positively influence e-government capacity
3. Mean per capita income, will positively influence E-Government capacity
4. The level of jurisdictional IT professionalism, measured on presence of IT departments w/ five or more full time employee, will positively influence e-government capacity.
-“Population size is the number one predictor of e-government adoption” (p.624).
-Three variables which may contribute to a slow down of E-Government
-The presence of a policy entrepreneur for e-government
-The role of technical staff in e-government initiatives
-Existence of slack resources in local government
-“The structural inertia that afflicts most governments, as well as a propensity toward riots aversion, means that governments are slow to adapt and implement new technologies” (p.629). The risks presented must be analyzed so that initiatives can be made to utilize the profits and advantages available through IT and e-government.
Coleman, Stephen. "E-Democracy and theUK Parliament." In Handbook of Public Information Systems, ed. David G. Garson. NY: Taylor and Francis.
Chapter 37, “E-Democracy and the U.K. Parliament”, pp.631-642
By: Stephen Coleman
-Public contributions to parliament through the Internet
-Specific policy issue expertise is being sought out among citizen participants
-From interaction with the public and citizens with unheard of evidence, discussion between citizens and legislators was formulated in online discussion.
-The objective of these forum type settings with citizens and legislators is to create independent summaries of points discussed. With all the information compiled, it may then be sent to parliament.
-The Womenspeak consultation on domestic violence and the Hansard Society, an independent, nonpartisan body were used for case studies regarding online consultations, online interaction, and online discussion
-Internet recruitment for with the victims of Womenspeak ran into two problems:
-accessibility: very few of the women knew about the internet or had access to a computer with internet access.
-security: confidentiality became a major concern for the women.
-Creating and Connecting Online Networks
-One month of consultation was set aside for Womenspeak
-Representative-Represented Interaction
-While the women involved were not impressed by the parlimentarians, the MP’s on the other hand expressed great enthusiasm for the program and made praising comments on the consultation.
-Evidential Quality
-The point of the consultations is to derive high quality evidence from the subject groups.
“Three Characteristics of deliberative quality were analyzed in this study: the extent to which messages were supported by external information, the frequency of message posting, and the level of interaction between messages and previous messages” (p.638).
-“…the connection of these forums to constitutional legitimacy helped to generate a relatively high quality of deliberation” (p.639)
-Conclusions from the Case Studies
-“that online consultations provide a space for inclusive public deliberation, is supported by the findings of both studies. The second hypothesis that online consultations generate and connect networks of interest or practice, is strongly supported by evidence from the Womenspeak consultation, where participants bonded so closely that several of them went on to set up their own community website” (p.640).
-Toward an E-Parliament
-Digital Technology: Working for Parliament and the Public
-Set out recommendations for future practices and conduct with online consultations.
-Purpose, information about the consultation, clarity, and review are all very important to the online consultations.
-Six practical considerations to be addressed by parliaments running e-consultations (p.641):
-Purpose of the consultation needs to be clear from the outset
-Attention needs to be given to the design of the consultation
-A process of recruitment is required to ensure that the right mix of “voices” are signed up to participate
-Democratic consultation requires fair, transparent, and inclusive moderation
-In lengthy online discussions there is a need for regular summation of what has been said
-Online consultations will only be taken seriously if they have impacts and outcomes.