Tues May 18
Air War College Report to Alabama: faculty
discussed their recent regional tours with AWC students.
Col. Stefan Eisen, Dean, Moderator.
Dr. Stephen Burgess, "South Africa."
Col. (Ret.) Theodore Hailes, "Russia."
Dr. Christopher Hemmer, "Israel."
3 Feb'04 (at Maxwell AFB).
Don Oberdorfer, "The Two Koreas."
Previous visit to Montgomery in a mob and then
Freedom Riders facing fixed bayonets, and CP Sonny Montgomery -- as a journalist.
Koreans call Japan sea East sea. [Map].
Contested by neighbors throughout all its history,
Russo Japan war fought and C19th Sino Japan war
over Korea. Tough neighborhood for Koreans. Geography is hist.
Soviet invasion of Korea, US concerned about Soviet
intent on Japan Aug. 1945. Rn troops moving. White House meeting
sent 2 colonels incl. Dean Rusk into another room to draw a line across
a Natl. Geography map looking for a mountain range or natural divider to
divide occupational duties and take surrender of Japan. Lacking one,
they took 38th parallel -- Rns took Japan surrender above that. No
US troops near the line but Stalin stopped his troops at the line.
Temp line which became permanent. Soviets created N.Korea under guerrilla
commander Kim Il Sung. South K Sigman Rhee grad of GWU, Harvard &
Princeton. 1950 SUng persuaded Stalin to attack, US troops had left,
not expected to return -- Stalin agreed at 4th attempt. HST reacted
this will not stand and sent US troops under UN flag. 4 year war
ended at similar position.
South ROK dominated by mil governments but by
1987 mc forced intro of democracy, flourished economically. Now 13th
largest economy on earth. Koreans very hard workers and intelligent
people, able to survive among bigger powers.
NOrth DRK still totalitarian, concentration camps
for 200K people, one of least human rights on earth. Deprivation,
starvation outside capital.
2M of 22M have starved to death in recent years,
est. by human rights groups.
N.Korea has always wanted nuclear weapons, since
PRC tested in 1954, but MAO not interested in spread of nukes. Early
1980s N.Korea began factory N of capital for plutonium weapons, reactor
for reprocessing fuel.. US satellites detected, growing issue in
1980s. 1985 USSR got N.Korea to sign Treaty of Nonproliferation.
UN IAEA inspectors in dispute as to scope. 1993-4 tension over N.Korea
Sec Def. Perry under Clinton said US came close
to war with N.Korea over issue. Agreed framework: factory shut down
under UN inspection & US offered electricity station reactor plus 500K
tons of fuel oil annually.
Bush admin. confirmed N.Korea had obtained tech
from Pakistan to produce highly enriched uranium in return for ballistic
N.Korea negotiator with Kelly was same authority
who had negotiated Agreed Framework, said to Sec. Jim Kelly US belligerent
attitude entitled them to program.
Brits still have embassy there -- at meeting,
concluded N.Korea had admitted their program.
N.Korea wanted recognize sovereignty, not interfere
with economy programs, sign non aggression Treaty. My judgement was
only opening request for negotiation. Relayed to State dept. &
urged engagement in discussions. Hard to do because they had broken
word once and would need verification.
Admin. decided to instead exert pressure to give
up enriched uranium program. Shut off heavy fuel oil.
N.Korea predictably reopened plutonium program,
reactor (announced all in advance) put hoods over UN cameras, kicked out
inspectors, exited Treaty of nonproliferation, moved fuel rods back.
N.Korea claims reprocessed all 8K fuel rods --
certainly have done some, pond is empty. Enough for 5-7 weapons,
added to 1 or 2 previously.
US turned to PRC which has provided food energy
and aid to them. PRC has urged negotiations, multilateral in US view
but N.Korea wants bilateral to prevent ganging up on them. Nov. 2003
bizarre dialog this way, Sec. Jim Kelly under instructions to be guarded,
each side made speech. After dinner, N.Korea rep talked to
Kelly in corner: not willing to give up nuclear materials, and had right
to transfer them around world. Chinese unhappy with meeting results.
Then 6 way meeting incl. Russia plus side meeting of US & N.Korea.
US govt. still sharply divided over N.Korea. Some want to put pressure
in hope of evil govt. collapsing. Sec. Powell persuaded bush to attend
talk with N.Korea in August -- when Bush on trip to Africa, met alone w/
Powell. But instructions to Kelly to say little, not to really engage
N.Korea. N.Korea 4 questions could not
N.Korea returned to threatening mode, but accepts
cannot transfer them overseas. Claims has finished nuclear deterrent,
laid out 4 stage plan unacceptable to US but possible basis for discussion.
Last two months invited John Lewis of Stanford
and Sig Heckler of Los Alamos delegation to N.Korea to show Americans they
have the plutonium. Confirmed both granules and metal weapons grade,
pond empty. Making weapon although not simple, 60 years old, well
Last Sunday Pakistan fired nuclear chief AQ Khan
for supplying N Korea, Iran and others -- see papers yesterday -- for cash,
without govt. approval.
Bush admin. would like this to go away till after
election, time on N.Korea side, restarted reactor. Next president
will be faced with difficult and dangerous situation -- limited choice
for negotiation or attack, neither good.
Situation not in train to get better but worse,
better to negotiate first.
SK new president 2002, young have no sense of
threat from N.Korea (31%) but from US.
If Gore president 2000?
Other nations interests?
Chinese want status quo without US involvement
increasing, with N.Korea threat reduced. Russians do not much part
in this, Putin had relations with Kim Jong Il and wants inclusion, but
they have unclear position.
Japanese with US, very worried about N.Korea --
3 stage ballistic missile launched over Japan islands into Pacific -- first
physical threat to Japan since WW2, population now more security conscious.
Revision of no war, no war forces clauses of japanese constitution
now called for.
Lead country is US & N.Korea viewpoint is
that US runs world.
Why did N.Korea neglect own people with food.
N.Korea is fairly far north & never had agricultural production of
South -- too cold and mountainous. Food deficit for years, but should
trade with other nations for food. Poor economy has limited that
and spending 1/3 of GDP on military.
Defector, close aid to Kim Il Sung told Don figures
of starvation, shrugged shoulders. I have no grief for N.Korea govt.,
terrible govt. but not likely collapse, and has no democracy tradition,
no obvious successor to Kim Jong Il.
US has pulled back troops? No, a 5 year
plan, few have yet moved, not because of SK public opinion but US force
restructuring and needing flexible response. Maybe 12K of 38K US
troops to be moved (rumors) but still N.Korea knows would be devastated
by war but only after wreaking incredible devastation on SK.
COuld South improve economy of N.Korea and N.Korea
come to their senses? SK trying and I am convinced Korea will be
unified -- old country for 13 centuries unified till 1945, and divided
almost by fluke. Unlike Germany had never started a war, just occupied
frequently. Deep yearning for reunification in Korea. One people,
Mike Mansfield? Unforgettable.
Irish immigrants, mom died, dad in construction, sent him to Montana relatives.
Ran way, joined Navy at 14 in WW1, then army & marines while still
teen. Copper mining in Butte 1920s, big industry. English teacher
got him to U Montana, married him, pushed him into politics. Maureen
named on his foundations.
House, Senate, majority leader.
1/3 of book desperate to fight to persuade presidents
to not engage US troops in indochina. Had been trooper in China,
had visited, had been professor. Mansfield told LBJ forthrightly
not to escalate VN war, carried with him updated index card of casualties.
Walked tightrope of Senate leader, opposing war in private but not blasting
LBJ in public.
Nov. 18, 2003
Griffiths, "The future of relations between the US and Europe."
President of WACA, former member of parliament
for Bury St. Edmonds and commons foreign affairs committee. Delegate
to Council of Europe and European Union; advisor to the British police.
Minister of sport and under secretary of environment. Government
spokesman on European and NATO issues, knighted 1988. Former journalist
for Time and editor for Newsweek. Chair, Korea-America
friendship society of southern California.
Note: owing to foul weather delaying Sir
Eldon's flights, Prof. Grant Hammond of Air War College gave an excellent
impromptu speech on the changing nature of international security.
Sir Eldon instead spoke twice on Nov. 19th at Maxwell AFB and the Capital
City Club. He was also interviewed as "Sir Griffiths" on APTV's For
Speech Nov. 19, 2003 at Maxwell AFB:
Anecdote: some years ago, when Sir Eldon was
given a demonstration flight in an F-111 from Norway to the UK, he was
subjected (to show the capabilities of the aircraft) to a 4 G turn before
landing. Afterwards, the pilot revealed himself to be an RAF officer.
Had there been an accident and a by-election, the US would not have been
Since 9/11/01, and Le Monde's headline that we
are all Americans now, the tidal wave of support for the US has evaporated.
We are now disturbed by the volume and acerbity of anti American feeling
around the world. In a recent, large EU poll, the American president
was rated as the second largest threat to world peace, after Sharon.
Impression of obsession with terrorist challenge
Preemptive, forward leaning policy OK but the
manner of expression gives the impression of obsession.
The Washington notion of terrorism being new.
9/11 attack was unique in scale -- but rest of world is used to terrorism
(e.g. King David hotel, 93 dead. Tower of London bombing, 19 killed.
In N. Ireland, Sir Eldon picked up the satin shoe of a girl after a bomb
killed 32 in a dance hall.)
So, it seems that terrorism has come to the US.
I'm a hawk on Iraq: the president did the right
UK is the most pro American state, yet it has
US rejected global warming treaties of
Tokyo and Bonn which 123 others signed.
US resisted UN efforts at the Biological weapons
US resisted (with Korea and Israel) the land mine
ban. Land mines kill 5,000 children per month -- so the ban would
prevent new laying.
ICC (International Criminal Court) was an American
idea and a good one. Deal with monsters and human rights violators.
The US fears unfair treatment of the US officers, but UK has experience
of trying terrorists, if necessary in secret.
Steel: WTO, set up by the US, has ruled US action
is illegal protectionism.
Guantanamo detainees: TV pictures, manacled captives,
no charges. NO pro US judge in the UK supports this treatment.
Evidence of Saddam trying WMD is
Post WW2 European dream of P-H. Spaak: caught
between the primitive barbarians (Russia) and civilized barbarians (US).
Sir Eldon saw the first victims of chemical weapons
-- took 31 to London burns unit from the Iran-Iraq border area. Britain's
mission in Iran has a large crater in its garden left from a scud missile
in the Iran-Iraq war.
Evidence from satellites and humint shows some
has moved to Iraq -- maybe not from Niger, but from an adjacent
Welcomes the US decision to hand over civil powers
to Iraqis (if not security, because not feasible.)
Must reduce profile of US army in Baghdad and
Tikrit. Heavy convoys are being shown around Arab TV, affronting
arabs. There is now a $5,000 bribe now to go to Iraq to kill Americans.
TV and money stimulate recruits in Karachi and elsewhere.
Experience in N. Ireland: British techniques.
In Basra, Brits are not taking casualties
amid 2.5 Million population. The hearts and minds campaign is partly
responsible. The brits recoiled into the background, removed helmets
and let the Iraqis police the streets.
Tikrit is admittedly a tough area of blackguards,
but the US will need to change its profile.
Internationalize security operations, despite
French and German rejection of UN resolutions. Must bring back UN
personality. Blue helmet helps France and germany to help the US
on the ground. (Amusing but not practical Internet humor to call
the French "cheese eating surrender monkeys").
Turkey was not handled well. It looked
as though US was bribing them, bad for public opinion.
Key force for security is Indian, whose
potential 10 - 15,000 troops would help the US reduce its forces.
Europe (with Marshall plan and NATO) was
rebuilt and is reaching East to 80 million more people within 5 years to
400 million population, with a GDP close to the US -- and double the world
trade of the US.
British relations with US:
But will it be a centralizing Europe? Sir
Eldon would regret it -- and UK would not be a party to that, resisting
Decentralized EU would be better friend of US.
Generally Europe has tilted to the Atlantic in face of USSR. Now
EU is opening the frontier to the east, even to the Ukraine (like the American
MidWest), Belarus, even Russia itself. Like the Americans crossing
the Mississippi. Labor, materials are available towards the Urals
(especially attractive when the US market is tough to enter) -- free of
Japanese and US competition.
Brits tilt towards the Atlantic, historically
towards the US, Canada and Australia -- but in future a great deal depends
on what the US does. US COG has moved west and south; US population
has doubled since Sir Eldon was a boy.
Bush and Blair fit well enough together, even
though politically they have different roots.
Common interest in trade (huge)
Brit investment in US $800 Billion, employing 1.2 million. US has
1/3 of investment in UK. Cultural connections, e.g.. PBS British
shows, US movies in UK.
Problems: disagree in some respects in
Brits against Sharon's Israeli wall, and
strikes using American gunships. It sets up American troops in Iraq
UK doesn't like to be taken for granted, 4th largest
economy, will overtake Germany eventually as German population shrinks.
After Thatcher, UK economy surpassed France and Italy.
Iran: should have done better with bring
Iran into system. Now should hesitate to use force against Iranian
nuclear development -- already advanced.
Political: Blair has taken tremendous risks
with his own party to support the US.
Diplomacy: 55 Commonwealth countries were
mobilized to help the US in the UN.
Defense links: antimissile screen will
require an advanced radar in Scotland as well as in Alaska. US bunker
buster bombs have skirted the Treaty restrictions. Thatcher took
political risk for US raid on Libya.
Where do US leaders take risks for the UK?
Diplomacy must ensure Blair is not seen as Bush's
Optimistic nonetheless, we can see this
thing through together.
Blair and Bush are in the same boat.
Bush needs evidence by election 2004 (probably
Blair, too) that Iraq is working and some troops removed.
Europe and US have no alternative to working
Nov. 18, 2003
Prof. Grant Hammond, Air War College,
changing nature of international security." Dr. Hammond holds
degrees from Harvard University and the Johns Hopkins University's SAIS.
He is the author of several books, and a number of scholarly articles.
Impromptu address, based on his book manuscript,
Revolution in Security Affairs.
Post 9/11/01, the rules have changed.
The top brand names in China are Coca Cola, Jeep and
Head & Shoulders.
US hegemony or "hyperpower" (from French
milspec has given way to COTS;
all satellite paths are now downloadable;
space imagery in high resolution (half meter)
is available to public, not just to military;
GPS is available.
Therefore adversaries are more efficient.
In the past, for information like this a military attaché might
have risked his life.
Viruses are now useful for warfare.
Non state actors are rising.
Chemical and biological weapons
have now joined nuclear weapons, but directed energy beams are becoming
an issue, including lasers.
Lasers were first developed in 1960 with
a ruby laser -- but now there is planned a Boeing 747 flying laser capable
of shooting down ICBMs, for a test in 2007. This is a weapon of the
future, powerful though long range is difficult to develop. A ground
based laser would destroy an incoming mobile laser. Yet clouds and
rain are difficult for lasers. In good conditions a 5 micron beam
at 12 miles can take an image of snow flakes.
High-powered microwaves: in 1964, a pacific
ocean A-bomb test stopped TV signals and cars in Hawaii, with an electromagnetic
pulse 1300 miles distant. Now a truck mounted antenna at 1 kilometer
excites the water in human skin and causes burning over a 30 degree angle,
resulting in troops fleeing in one second. It is not dependent on
any explosive force.
Both larger and smaller than states, they
include 30,000 NGOs compared to 5,000 Government organizations.
Information technology empowers small non state
Greater examples are UN, NATO, NAFTA and the EU.
Smaller examples are Greenpeace, the Red Cross,
and Al Qaeda.
ICRL (land mines ban) was started by a
NH housewife (with a SAIS degree). It spread via the internet to
over 80 countries, and obtained the signing of the ban on land mines by
numerous nations. (The Web has only existed from 1993!)
Lexus and Olive Tree thesis (from book)
angry and empowered young men can talk across the globe without ever meeting
as a revolutionary cell.
Graying of the West, as fertility declines.
and Germany are now at zero population growth. Japan is worried about
its future workforce.
Thesis: this combination changes our world radically.
Globally, teenagers will preponderant by 2030,
including in 20 muslim nations where 25% of the population is aged 15-24.
Teens are malleable, gullible and available for war.
September 30, 2003
Ambassador Bruce Laingen, "Iran: Axis of Evil
“fellow hostages” from Huntingdon
Declining Images of America around the World:
shown in polls, especially in middle east.
Original yellow ribbon of his wife is in Library
Shares suite of offices with WACA office
Policies need support of people to succeed.
Islamabad 75% to 15%. Favorable
since September 11, 2001
Afghanistan was favorite post. Minnesota
(home state) there to protect Canada from Iowa.
Jordan 25% to 1%
Sen. Lugar on GAO report on this decline.
America is brilliant in communication- so why all thumbs in public diplomacy
Middle East, Iraq, Afghanistan- & bellwether
of Israel and Palestinians.
A.A.D.- including. Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz among 159
prima donnas, including Henry Kissinger.
Axis of Evil- clever speech but poor policy.
Opportunity? Yes- to change strategic
environment. Population unhappy with regime. Only a dozen hands
raised having visited Iran- not know by Americans.
US second largest Persian speaking nation. E.g.,
HC student here is Iranian-[Dane living in America].
No embassy or intell. Presence for 25 years.
Longer than after  Russian Revolution or  Communist Revolution
Young people- 70% under 30, but old country, culturally
rich, intensely nationalistic, skeptical of outsiders (Russia,
Brits, US. Historically).
Only Shia government in world
US fleet in Persian gulf, 150K troops
on western boarder of Iran. Cannot ignore when in each others’ faces-
US and Iran should be talking despite theocracy ( not my cup of tea, saw
up close as hostage).
For Iran, conviction that US never accepted reality
Intense appreciation of separation of church and
Terrorism, nuclear weapons issue – for US
Failed to appreciate their role of neutrality
in Gulf War
Served in Iran twice- once suddenly after US and Britain
coup vs. Mossadegh, 1953
Churchill: not war war, but jaw, jaw.
Effects shipped back from Japan months
Folly to topple current regime. Has no recognizable
leader to replace, not that strong. But can contribute to change
structure of government- gives senior clerics ultimate decision on foreign
policy- now out of line with its history.
Second time diverted from Afghanistan to Iran.
Much youthful unemployment of graduates-
major brain drain so many reformers leave 180,000?
Nuclear nonproliferation one of most important task
of US foreign policy Iran -- can be held with feet to fire with AEA.
Hard liners, conservatives can keep students from
power, but growing NGO presence, working quickly for change
4,000 Yahoo chat groups in Teheran alone
Foreign Min. same as in 1979 during the
takeover of US embassy
Objectives to prevent Iran breaking up
- fell from power soon but has returned.
Says has nothing to hide and will be transparent.
Butt AEA has recently discovered nuclear material
Why not emulate South Africa? But Iran faced
with nuclear weapons in Russia, Israel, potentially Iraq.
Khalazi (Foreign sec) democratic government.
- many commonalities between US and
Ayatollah Montazeri under house arrest 25 years-
calling for dialogue with US.
Khoumeini's grandson now serious about dialogue
with US. Much of government also ready.
US serious about WMD and Iran’s intentions.
Lee Hamilton : “ pragmatism most preferred over
No trade with Iran today because of US Sanctions
7m pop- substantial market.
Perot did turn to use of force (to extract jailed
executives) - I salute him, but jails fell apart at time- relatively easy.
½ way around the world, secrecy, uncharted route.
Carter tried force April 1980- planning
assumption was 10-15 dead hostages would have been seen as success .
April 26 annually I place a wreath on monument to dead. (Explained
complex plan) on face of it, mission impossible.
Arab Israeli peace, next step? Condi Rice has
that assignment at present.
I did not sense at that time that rescue mission
was necessary, not in dire straits.
No policy can succeed without president.
Iranian & Iraqi arms sales dealings (to both sides)
under Reagan did leave long term distrust
Diplomacy is 3 legged stool- traditional
diplomacy, intelligence, force.
Globalization cannot be avoided.