Political Science at Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College | Political Science | Courses
PSC 207: Public Administration

Grover Starling, Managing the Public Sector
Students' Outlines

Compiled (thanks) by Dr. Jeremy Lewis.  Revised 27 Nov. 2005. Some formatting 16 & 22 Oct. 2007.


Chapters:  | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | Appendix
Chapter 1: What is Public Administration?
Chapter 2: The Politics of Administration
Chapter 3: Interorganizational Relations
Chapter 4: Administrative Responsibility and Ethics
Chapter 5: Planning
Chapter 6: Decision Making
Chapter 7: Organizing
Chapter 8: Leadership in Organizations
Chapter 9: Implementation
Chapter 10: Human Resources Management
Chapter 11: Financial Management (Budgeting)
Chapter 12: Information Management (Revolution)
Appendix: Career Management


Chapter 1: The Nature of Public Administration
By Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• Public Administration is traditionally thought of as the side of the government which accomplishes everything. Public Administration is broadly defined as the process by which resources are marshaled and then used to solve problems a political community faces. System and Method of how the government exercises authority.
• The Non-Profit sector is an important part of Public Administration. • Both public, government, and private sectors depend on each other.
The following 5 steps should be followed for maximum effectiveness:
Listen to the customer, identify the assets, decide the business, empower employees, and create value.
Public Managers need at least these 3 criteria to effectively manage:
Public Management (values and expectations of society about governance),
Program Management (planning, organizing, decision-making, leading, and implementing), and
Resource Management (Marshaling human/financial resources).
The 3 sectors differ in: structures, incentives, settings, and purposes.
• The Ten Management Roles:
Interpersonal Relations (figurehead, liaison, leader),
Transfer of Information (monitor, disseminator, spokespersons),
Decision Makers (negotiator, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator.)
• 3 perspectives of Public Administration:
• Madisonian: Law was the best way to limit government power.
• Wilsonian: Administration is the most obvious part of government. Management Process.
• Rooseveltian: Using political means to attain administrative ends.
• The Sectors at different levels:
For-Profit: transnational organizations, national corporations, and local businesses.
Government: intergovernmental organizations, federal agencies, state and local government.
Non-Profit: nongovernmental organizations, national non-profit groups, and local non-profit groups.



PART 1: POLITICAL MANAGEMENT



Chapter 2: The Political-Legal Environment of Administration
By Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• Agencies follow a management strategy that is connected to its political strategy by the Public Administrator. The more important issues in the political realm are brought to the attention of the agency first, thus shaping the environment.
• Public Administrators are frequently involved in the policy-making process. They are used actively in decision-making.
• There are 4 activities of implementation: • Administrative rules are law. • Interpretive Rules are also established by agencies. These are not binding by law.
• The most commonly used rule making procedure is called notice-and-comment . • When rules are thought to be violated, agencies take administrative action against an individual or organization. Settlements are most often negotiated. If no settlement is reached, a formal complaint may be issued.
• Bureaucratic Agencies may not always comply with agencies. Some congressional policies also affect agencies. The Freedom of Information Act in 1966 allows those who are denied information requests from an agency can file a formal complaint.
• Congress must perform constant oversight of the performance of the executive branches. This oversight is not frequent enough or performed well.
• Sometimes the environment of the executives and their employees are full of tension. This stems from the quick turnover of political employees, change is resisted because of tradition, outside groups can be brought in, and many parties can disagree.
• Administrative responsibility, influence on management, and administrative law are used to analyze complex relations between courts and administrative agencies. • Many other things affect the force of the environment of the public administrator. • The 8 important bases of individual powers: • The best strategies when dealing with the agencies political environment include:

Chapter 3: Intergovernmental Relations
By Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• There are many separate jurisdictions that make up our federal government. All of these have very different relationships.
• The U.S. federal government divides its central and regional governments. Each then has its own area of jurisdiction.
There are two “cake” models of government.
One is the “layer cake” model of federalism, claiming that each is independent and is easily defined.
The “marble cake” model demonstrates the cooperation and intermingling of U.S. governments and powers.
It is generally said that federalism tends to recognize mainly national/state and interstate relations.
However, it tends to ignore national/local, state/local, and interlocal relations.
• There are 6 eras of federal-state relations in America. • As more and more government grants were introduced, they became important staples and fixtures that identified American Government. • Not only can presidents create new eras, they can also create: • Since the 1990's, the Supreme Court has been responsible for: reining in the national government, • Principles of that would elucidate a rational division of responsibility among the levels of government include • When a citizen travels or lives in another state, they are protected by Article IV, section 2, which requires states to extend the privileges of their states to those citizens. • Home Rule allows local (city) governments to carry on their affairs with a minimum of external legislation.
• Although there are some variations, there are 2 major basic municipality institutions: • Township exist in New England, these are several institutions in a county and perform the same duties as city govs.
• Negotiation is very important in Intergovernmental relations, because that is the best way for something to happen, for both sides to compromise and feel as if they have been made better. Slicing a pie- no ones should be bigger.



Chapter 4: Administrative Responsibility and Ethics
By Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
* In Federalist Paper No. 51, Madison talks of “auxiliary precautions”. These are both formal and informal, and are there to make sure that Public Administration does not fall short of its goals and ideals.
* Graduates of Public Policy and Administration say maintaining ethical standards are the most important skill to success.
* The 6 core values of Administrative responsibility are:
responsiveness, fairness, flexibility, honesty, accountability, and competence.
* A full fledged customer-driven program contains the 4 Ps: product, price, promotion, and placement
* Agencies apply fairness by following due process in order to ensure citizens are able to be heard.
* The more honesty and trust that exists in a community, the better it functions.
* The reasons that public officials deceive include: to hide poor performance, and a feeling of superiority.
[* Three bad MFs:]
Misfeasance is the improper performance of lawful duties.
Malfeasance is the performance of duties that are forbidden by law or commonly accepted moral standards.
Nonfeasance is the failure to perform required duties.
* The new paradigm of Public Management contains 5 key ideas:
government should provide high quality service that is valued by citizens,
the autonomy of public managers should increase,
organizations and individuals should be evaluated on the basis of how well they meet performance goals,
managers must provide adequate human and technology resources,
public sector managers must realize the value of competition and keep an open mind about the services that belong to the private, not the public sector.
* There are many formal and informal controls to verify the 6 core values. * Sovereign Immunity is the principle that the government may not be sued without its consent. Now, because of the Federal Torts and Claims Act of 1946[?], citizens can sue as a result of government negligence.
* An ombudsman is a person that is appointed by the gov. to mediate and remedy disputes.
* Many try to say ethics are private and subjective?.

PART II: PROGRAM MANAGEMENT


Chapter 5: Planning
By Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
* Planning is the keystone of an agency. * Agencies create policies, statements of goals and the relative importance of them. * The most critical approaches to successful planning include flexibility and adaptability to changing environments. * The logical incrementalism is a conservative approach (low risk) that is practical because it takes small steps to achieving goals.
* Vision Plans are drawn up by steering committees for many years in advance.
* Urban and Regional Planning is the basic function of city gov. It deals with suburban sprawl, congestion, and other interrelated problems. It is a very comprehensive plan.
* Contingency plans respond to emergencies and other setbacks. Administrators look at and assess all uncontrollable factors.
* The 3 essential steps in Crisis Management are: * U.S. gov. has a history of supplying services rather than prevention of problems. It is more preoccupied with rowing than steering.
* The barriers that agencies encounter are usually self-imposed. * Programs are assessed by 2 major tests: performance measurement and program evaluation.




Chapter 6: Decision Making
By Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
* Managers should take 4 steps to effectively make decisions. They are: * Managers need to assess the importance of each problem. * When gathering facts, the upper limits are researched. * 6 analytical techniques are helpful when making the decision. They are: * Systems analysis has 4 steps: * Group decision making is an option when there is no pending or looming deadline for the problem. * Biases must be understood by the decision makers. * Research is the bottom line of all decision making. * An in-depth understanding of the research and other ideas are necessary to make sure the decision, when implemented, will last for the long run.
 



Chapter 7: Organizing
by Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• Planning, decision making, and organizing all fall under the same umbrella. • The 4 elements of organizational design are: • The Scalar Principal (hierarchy) states that authority and responsibility need to flow in a direct downward line. • Span of control includes the number of workers a manager can manage. • The line-staff distinction is based on who is acting as what. • Max Weber’s 6 key features of the bureaucratic structure are: • Low capacity for innovation is bureaucracy’s weakest point. • 2 managers responsible for 1 employee is called the matrix approach.
• A team is a small number of people with complementary skills committed to a common goal. • Governments use network organizations to create and fund a network of non-governmental organizations to implement policies.
• The organizational chart demonstrates how work is to be divided and who are the managers.
• 4 questions asked of an organization being designed: • Reorganization stems from: • 4 design criteria: Many want to see public administration changed into a

Chapter 8: Leadership in Organizations
by Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• Program management is like an iceberg.
Only a small part is visible, while most goes unseen.
The visible aspects include:
planning,
decision-making, and
organizing.
• Group objectives of leaders fall into 2 categories:
the achievement of group goals, and
the maintenance of the group.
• 4 basic leadership styles:
human relations,
coaching,
delegating,
directing.
• The effectiveness of managers depends on the style they use, depending on the situation.
• Administrations can elicit better performance 2 ways:
motivation and
training.
• The human resources approach states that employees are human and complex motivated by needs, and how they are answered.
• One of the most vital topics in Public Administration is leading change.
Managers must execute power by
preserving their power bases,
worried about their performance: will they meet the demands?, and
interested in different goals for the organization.
• Leaders must
establish a sense of urgency,
develop a vision and strategy,
communicate,
empower employees,
generate short-term wins,
consolidate gains, and
create better change.
• Organizational Development (OD) is a planned process of change that focuses on bringing cultural change.
It uses behavioral science knowledge.




Chapter 9: Implementation
by Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• 2 particular difficulties stand out when implementing new social programs:
multiplicity of participants, and
multiplicity of perspectives.
• the metaphor of games has been used in the implementation process:
the players, their strategies, the rules, fair play, and communication.
• Privatization symbolizes a new way of thinking about the governments role in addressing a society’s needs.
It is the act of reducing the government, to privatized means to move from one arrangement to the other.
These arrangements are possible:
contracts,
grants,
franchises,
partnerships,
vouchers, and
voluntary service.
• Contracting offers advantages:
can increase efficiency,
frees public administrator from routine details,
increases flexibility,
promotes better objectives.
Its disadvantages include:
increase of cost,
harder to realize administrative responsibility,
lack of human resources.
• The Federal Acquisition Regulation
contains the uniform policies and procedures for all acquisitions by federal agencies.
• Cases are processed by public sector. And have clear stages they must pass through:
acquisition,
screening,
assignment,
prioritizing,
scope definition,
data collection,
data interpretation,
action,
resolution, and
evaluation.
• The Total Quality Management approach
strives to achieve continuous improvement of quality throughout the entire organization.
• The PDCA cycle:
PLAN: a specific problem and solution are identified.
DO: implement the change.
CHECK: implementation is evaluated.
ACT: improvement becomes new standard.
• Compliance management has one objective:
to leverage a limited resource through planning, control, and targeting.
There is a clear focus on results.
• Schedule models serve a wide variety of purpose.
They facilitate the coordination of activities and put resources to better use.
• Backward mapping means beginning at the end, where the administrators are making their decisions everyday.
It shows where the decision will take the agency, and what planning is called for.
• Redesign entails a complete evaluation of processes.
Reengineering is the redesign of a system.
• Errors can happen not only by humans, but mechanisms.
To combat these, managers need to take a more “hands-on” approach, as a walk-through, follow-ups, and incentives.




Part III: Resources Management


Chapter 10: Human Resources Management
by Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• The development of public personnel management in the United States has gone through six periods:
Government by Gentlemen: The Guardian Period (1789-1829),
Government by the Common Man: The Spoils Period (1829-1883),
Government by the Good: The Reform Period (1883-1906),
Government by the Efficient: The Scientific Management Period (1906-1937),
Government by the Administration: The Management Period (1937-1955, and
Government by Shared Power (1955-Present).
Since the 1950's, multiple sources of power that effect the management of public employees have arisen:
professionals, unions, minorities and women, and consumers.
• The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 made two units for the Civil Service Commission:
the Office of Personnel Management and the Merit Systems Protection Board.
• Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employers from discriminating based on race, color, or gender.
It also prohibits sexual harassment and discrimination based on pregnancy.
• There are many other federal laws that effect human resource management. These include:
the Equal Pay Act of 1963,
the Age Discrimination Act of 1967,
the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and
the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.
• Although there is no mention of privacy in the constitution,
the Supreme Court has labeled the First, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments as guaranteeing personal privacy as an American right.
Many employees concern privacy issues with:
drug tests, searches, and questions about sexual orientations and living arrangements.
• Organizational Culture is the predominant value system of an organization.
Members of an organization must internalize the organization’s underlying values and beliefs to ensue benefits, including more cooperation and commitment.
• Symbolic Managers believe that “actions speak louder than words.”
The manager creates a vision, and gives employees incentives to follow that vision and make it happen.
• Human Resources Planning involves knowledge and forecasts of human needs.
3 questions of HRP:
What new technologies are emerging?
What will the volume of work be in the next decade?
What is the turnover rate, and is it avoidable?
• The 5 big personality traits are:
extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience.
• Performance appraisal is the evaluation of an employee’s job effectiveness.
• In case discipline action is needed, both manager and employee need to understand what happened, and how and if it can be remedied.
• Collective Bargaining is a compromise between union and management officials.
Hopefully, it will continue and enrich their relationship.
• In the public sector, collective bargaining is done by the Executive branch, which relies on the Legislative branch to supply the money.
Unions want the scope of bargaining to be broad (discussing salary, wages, etc.)
Managers want to keep it narrow (focus only on the problem at hand.)
• When a bargain fails, there will either be a strike, or arbitration. Neither one is a pretty aspect.
 



Chapter 11: Public Financial Management (Budgeting)
by Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• Administrators devote much time to creating the budget, which is central to any management of financial resources.
• the 4 phases of the federal budget cycle are: • Congress adopted an annual budget in 1974, through the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act.
• The federal government collects and spends over $2 trillion a year on Funding comes from: • Most states budget within the executive branch. • The purposes of budget are • Traditional Performance Budgeting • Agencies pursue 2 types of strategies in the budget process: • A financial Manager in the public sector should be familiar with the 3 pragmatic concepts of developing a tax system: • The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 created 2 legal categories of federal spending: • The entire Budget process takes about 30 months.

Chapter 12: Information Management (Revolution)
by Amanda Blessing, Fall 2005
• New Computer and Communications technologies have created a revolution in the public sector. • High-quality information is accurate, relevant, timely, and economical.
• 6 decisions for managers to take responsibility in key decisions on informational technology:
How much should we spend on IT?
How programs need or should receive new IT?
Which IT capabilities need to be centralized throughout the agency?
How good do our IT services really need to be?
What security and privacy risks will we accept?
Who will be blamed if IT fails?
• 4 antidistortion factors in communicative systems: • Managers must always be aware of biases or weaknesses in formal and informal information networks.
• Data Mining is the act of uncovering patterns and relationships in large amounts of data.
• Steps to secure data networks: • Public executives, managers, and employees use 6 types of information technology to access and share information: • 8 C’s of Communication:





Appendix: Career Management